NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog

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ExtremeMarch 1988 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Bola ( 1988-03-06 )

5-150+ years

Ex-tropical Cyclone Bola struck most regions of the North Island, in particular Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Gisborne and Northland, bringing widespread damage with combinations of heavy rain, flooding, high winds and heavy seas. Two people were drowned in Northland, three in Gisborne and two in Hawke's Bay. Three people were injured by high winds in Taranaki. The tail end of the cyclone later struck Tasman-Nelson.

North Island

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at North Island
Duration:   7  days - From the 6th to the 12th of March.
Comments:

CommentWeather forecast on the 8th: "A deep depression about 120 km north of North Cape is expected to remain near northern New Zealand over the next few days. A ridge of high pressure should persist across the south of the South Island, until Thursday. A very strong east to southeast flow is expected over northern and central NZ."

CauseEx-tropical Cyclone Bola. On the 8th, the front was stationary off Cape Brett, bringing heavy rain and high winds.

Affected LifelineState Highway 35 was closed between Opotiki (Bay of Plenty) and East Cape (Gisborne). State Highway 2 between Gisborne and Opotiki was also blocked.

Affected LifelineThe Napier-Gisborne railway was closed.

Insurance PaymentInsurance Industry Payouts for the whole event totalled $37,000,000 ($63,000,000 2008 dollars), excluding Earthquake Commission claims.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicOne location recorded 593 mm (59.3 cm) of rain for the event.

Northland

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Northland
Comments:

Affected LifelineRoads around the region were out of action.

Affected LifelinePower cuts occurred and telephone services were severely disrupted. Most of the region was without power and telephone lines. Widespread damage was done to power lines and phone lines.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for North Kaipara, lasting from the 10th to the 13th.

Insurance PaymentNorthland Insurance losses totalled $3,720,000 in 1991 ($5,446,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

DurationFrom the 6th to the 9th.

Crop DamageWidespread damage was done to crops and horticulture. Damage was caused to shallow rooted trees such as citrus and tamarillos. More than $10 million ($17,000,000 2008 dollars) damage was done to Northland's farming and horticulture.

Damage CostLosses of $5 million ($8,500,000 2008 dollars) were sustained by the region's horticultural industry.

Crop DamageNorthland's kiwifruit industry was likely to suffer $3 million ($5,000,000 2008 dollars) in lost income earnings.

Crop DamageTamarillo growers faced industry losses of $750,000 ($1,300,000 2008 dollars).

Property DamageAn estimated 500 homes were damaged.

Physical CharacteristicThe low pressure system had a nadir (lowest pressure) of 980 hPa.

DamageWinds caused "windsnap" damage in conjunction with saturated soils, and wind throw of many of the trees used in the region for farm and horticulture shelter and specimen plantings.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicThere was up to 500 mm (50.0 cm) of rain over a six-day period.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentTorrential rain caused flooding in Northland on the 7th.

CasualtiesA 74-year-old man was drowned on the 8th after he was swept away by flood waters while trying to clear stock.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

DamageSwollen tides shattered craft moored at coastal areas throughout the region.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

DamageThe high winds caused significant damage to Northland forests.

DamageDamage was done to 1,481 ha of Timberland's Northland Forest. Of trees aged 0-4 years, 794 ha were damaged, or 53%. Of trees aged 5-14 years, 547 ha were damaged, or 37%. Of trees aged 14-20 years, 3 ha were damaged, or 2%. Of trees aged over 20 years, 140 ha were damaged, or 9%.

Physical CharacteristicWinds gusted up to 130 km/hr.

FloodingFlooding at Dargaville
Map Location: -35.944137 173.869958
Comments:

Affected LifelineAt Dargaville, 5000 residents were left without a water supply when an old railway bridge 30km north of Dargaville carried away the town's water pipeline.

Declared EmergencyDargaville was under a Civil Defence Emergency.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Hokianga Harbour
Map Location: -35.418484 173.422286
Comments:

Damage CostFlood damage to Hokianga roads was estimated at $300,000-$400,000 ($500,000-$700,000 2008 dollars).

Damage4-5 hectares of the Hokianga county council's Haretuku pine forest had to be written off because of damage from the cyclone.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineAt least 20 slips occurred from Te Karae to Motuti.

FloodingFlooding at Kaihu River
Map Location: -35.759652 173.67999
Comments:

EvacueesFour homes were evacuated in the Kaihu Valley.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Kohukohu
Map Location: -35.361871 173.542272
Comments:

Affected LifelineIn the Kohukohu area 100 people were isolated by closed roads for about four days.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Marsden Point
Map Location: -35.840268 174.498311
Comments:

CommentThere was a storm surge at Marsden Point, over and above the predicted tide.

Physical CharacteristicSouth-east alongshore winds caused coastal set-up, and combined with a peak inverted barometer (IB) set-up of 0.27 m, resulting in a peak storm surge of 0.63 m at Marsden Point at around 12am on the 7th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedThere were peak south-east alongshore winds of up to 25 m/s (90 km/hr).

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Opua
Map Location: -35.314323 174.11743
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicOpua had a storm surge of +0.50m.

FloodingFlooding at Te Karaka
Map Location: -35.428486 173.406406
Comments:

Evacuees600 people were evacuated at Te Karaka.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Whangarei
Map Location: -35.719519 174.298397
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei recorded 302 mm (30.2 cm) of rain in 48 hours - 20 year rainfall.

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei recorded 234 mm (23.4 cm) of rain in two days (Return Period 30 years).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentThere was widespread flooding in Whangarei.

Affected LifelineOverflowing sewers caused health risks.

CasualtiesA loader driver was killed after going over a bank.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei had gale force winds of more than 100 km/hr.

Property DamageThe high winds lifted roofs.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12am and 4am on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 40 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 50 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 55 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 74 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 105 km/hr.

Peak Wind SpeedBetween 12am and 4am on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 126 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 112 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 97 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 86 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 65 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12am and 4am on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 47 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 54 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 68 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 93 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 74 km/hr.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

ImpactThe winds whipped up tides, wrenching craft from their mooring.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard
Comments:

DamageThe worst damage to forests was in the Whangarei area, caused by an unusual combination of torrential rain, coupled with strong and prolonged winds from the south-easterly direction.

Auckland

FloodingFlooding at Auckland
Comments:

CommentAuckland experienced some minor surface flooding on the 8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Property DamageRoofs were lifted and trees blown down.

Affected LifelinePower was cut off to some areas.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicAuckland had a storm surge of +0.40 m.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hauraki Gulf
Map Location: -36.626375 174.933275
Comments:

CommentThere were storm warnings in the Hauraki Gulf from Bream Head to Cape Colville for winds of 40 knots (74 km/hr), gusting to 50 knots (93 km/hr).

Waikato

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Waikato
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe Coromandel Peninsula had no power overnight on the 7th/8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Crop DamageThere were fruit losses in the Waikato.

ImpactDairy farmers in areas without power experienced loses through being unable to milk.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kinleith Forest
Map Location: -38.434697 176.039837
Comments:

DamageCyclone Bola caused considerable damage to Kinleith Forest, with over 5000 ha of mature and semi mature radiata pine affected. Scattered damage occurred over a wide range of the forest, concentrated in the western parts (Tatua, Whakamaru, Waikato and Pouakani North Block). The most severe damage was in the Whakamaru/ Maraetai area. Damage was characterised by stem bending or breakage on most sites, and uprooting was noted in Tatua.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Taupo
Map Location: -38.69531 176.070758
Comments:

DamageHigh winds straight out of the Kaimanawa Ranges struck the Taupo Forest, causing damage of varying degrees to 700 ha of the northern area of the forest. The affected trees were from 2 years old to 14 years old, the most severe damage being in 12-14-year-old stands recently production thinned. 4000 ha of young stands aged 2-6 years old received damage affecting from 20-80% of trees in the stand.

Peak Wind SpeedIn the Taupo area a maximum wind speed of 95 km/hr was recorded on the 7th.

DamageIn the Timberlands Kinleith Forests and TFL Forests, over 17,000 ha was damaged.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Te Awamutu
Map Location: -38.009384 175.334988
Comments:

Affected LifelinePower was cut in Te Awamutu for 12 hours, with the main services in town disrupted after power poles between Te Awamutu and Karapiro were blown over by gale force winds. The town was without power overnight on the 7th/8th.

FloodingFlooding at Thames
Map Location: -37.140988 175.533107
Comments:

CommentIntensive flooding occurred in the Thames Valley region.

DamageA 26-year old dam cracked and slumped in two places following heavy rain.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for Thames Valley UC at 3:05pm on the 8th. The Thames Coast declaration lasted for three days.

CommentThe Return Period was estimated at a 5-year event.

Evacuees84 people were evacuated in Thames Valley UC due to flooding. 52 evacuees were registered at the Thames welfare centre, and 32 registered at Te Puru.

Bay of Plenty

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Bay of Plenty
Comments:

DamageIn the Bay of Plenty region, 2500 ha of trees were affected. Less than one-third of the volume of timber was blown down as in Cyclone Bernie. The crop damged was much younger than in Cyclone Bernie.

Physical CharacteristicAn avergae gust speed (obtained by averaging for Rotorua, Gisborne and Tauranga) of 51 knots (94 km/hr) was recorded on the 7th and 8th (Return Period 22 years).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kaingaroa Forest
Map Location: -38.411566 176.570546
Comments:

DamageThe main damage to forests in the Bay of Plenty district was done to forests in the south and west of Kaingaroa.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Opotiki
Map Location: -38.005993 177.293236
Comments:

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Opotiki area (18 sites) required a total of $1.30 million ($2,210,000 2008 dollars) of works to restore it.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Rotorua
Map Location: -38.140434 176.262282
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedRotorua Airport recorded peak gusts of 100 km/hr during one hour.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 329 km on the 6th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 796 km on the 7th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 501 km on the 8th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 494 km on the 9th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 446 km on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tauranga
Map Location: -37.679532 176.173022
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedTauranga recorded winds of up to 44 knots (80 km/hr) on the 7th.

Property DamageRoof iron was lifted off some buildings and a glass window was blown in at the Inland Revenue Department.

Affected LifelineThere were power faults caused by the wind. Welcome Bay, Kaitemako Road and Maungatapu were without power.

Affected LifelineA Tauranga-Wellington flight was cancelled on the 7th.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Affected LifelineOne ship was delayed by rough seas and high winds.

ImpactAn Auckland yachtsman went missing after leaving Tauranga.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tikitere
Map Location: -38.064347 176.351141
Comments:

DamageThe Tikitere agroforestry trial experienced severe damage by gale force winds on the 7th and 8th. The winds coming from the South-east caused widespread top breakage but few trees were windthrown. Cyclone Bola was the third major cyclone to affect the trial.

Gisborne

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Gisborne
Comments:

CauseThe centre of the low did not come anywhere near Gisborne. The system had lost its tropical cyclone appearance by the time heavy rain started in Gisborne. The rain occurred in an area where tropical air brought down by the low converged with cooler air, brought up from the south-east on the northern flank of an anticyclone. Gisborne also lay within a “double jet” structure - in a region between the poleward exit region to one jet, and the equatorwards entrance region to another.

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Gisborne areas (15 sites) required a total of $1.20 million ($2,040,000 2008 dollars) of works to resotre it.

Damage CostDamage to forests on the East Coast was estimated at $8.6 million ($14,700,000 2008 dollars).

Insurance PaymentInsurance losses for East Cape and Poverty Bay totalled $3,530,000 in 1991 ($5,168,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

Total DamageThe damage totalled $111 million ($189,000,000 2008 dollars).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the East Cape region at 9pm on the 7th and lasted until the 13th. The declaration was re-extended for Poverty Bay, Waikohu County and Waiapu County from the 22nd to the 25th. DRC was appointed on the 9th for 28 days, and reappointed on 1st April and 1st May, for 28 days each time.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Poverty Bay Combined District at 4:27pm on the 7th and lasted until 9pm on the 7th.

ImpactTwelve people were rescued by a helicopter from flood-ravanged East Coast areas. By the third day, 17 helicopters were operating for call-outs.

Crop DamageMillions of dollars worth of damage was done to crops.

Affected LifelineWater supplies in many towns ruptured.

Property DamageDozens of homes were severely damaged.

DamageVery extensive and severe erosion occurred into the East Cape.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

CommentRain fell in Gisborne from the 6th.

CommentA heavy rain warning was issued, but the amounts that eventuated were far in excess of the forecast.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

CommentMassive landslides occurred.

FloodingFlooding at Gisborne City
Map Location: -38.656661 178.017356
Comments:

Affected LifelineGisborne streets were flooded.

Affected LifelineThe Gisborne water supply failed on the 7th, leaving the population of 30,000 without water.

Damage CostRepairs to the water supply in Gisborne were estimated to cost $6.6 million ($11,200,000 2008 dollars).

Evacuees3000 people were evacuated at Gisborne.

Affected LifelineFlights were cancelled, stranding hundreds of air travellers.

Insurance PaymentInsurance losses for Gisborne totalled $4,580,000 in 1991 ($6,705,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, assistance costs were estimated at $21 million in 1989 ($35,000,000 2008 dollars), paid to farmers under the Cyclone Bola farming assistance programme.

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, the storm damage cost for repairing non-insurable on-farm storm damage (fences, farm tracks, etc.) was estimated at $18 million in 1989 ($29,100,000 2008 dollars).

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, income was reduced by $18 million (1989) ($29,100,000 2008 dollars) due to reduced grazing area and livestock numbers, and $3 million ($4,860,000 2008 dollars) the following year - a total of $21 million ($35,000,000 2008 dollars).

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, farm valuations reduced by an estimated $20 million ($32,400,000 2008 dollars).

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Glenross station
Map Location: -38.332588 178.072908
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicGlenross/ Waimata recorded 917 mm (91.7 cm) of rain in four days (Return Period well over 150 years).

FloodingFlooding at Hicks Bay
Map Location: -37.590857 178.282493
Comments:

EvacueesThe Hicks Bay Motor camp was evacuated.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Mangatuna
Map Location: -38.30045 178.26526
Comments:

CommentMangatuna was hard hit by flooding and gales.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CasualtiesThree people were drowned at Mangatuna, near Tolaga Bay, when they were trapped in a car that was swept away by flood waters at 8:30pm on the 7th.

FloodingFlooding at Ormond
Map Location: -38.559177 177.924843
Comments:

ImpactMajor flooding occurred at Ormond. Stopbanks to the south were breached in the Kaiteretahi/ Ormond area, isolating residents.

EvacueesIn the Kaitaratahi/ Ormond area 400 people were evacuated to Waikohu College and Crainwich Farm.

FloodingFlooding at Ruatoria
Map Location: -37.890508 178.310264
Comments:

Affected LifelineRuatoria was isolated, with bridge approaches washed away.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Te Karaka
Map Location: -38.467237 177.870255
Comments:

Evacuees400 people were evacuated at Te Karaka on the 7th when the swollen Waipaoa River came close to flooding the township.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Te Puia
Map Location: -38.054756 178.309912
Comments:

Peak RainfallTe Puia Springs recorded 419 mm (41.9 cm) of rain in 24 hours (Return Period more than 150 years).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

Affected LifelineTe Puia Springs was isolated, with roads washed out and no power.

FloodingFlooding at Tikitiki
Map Location: -37.797294 178.411972
Comments:

Affected LifelineTikitiki was isolated.

FloodingFlooding at Tokomaru Bay
Map Location: -38.12831 178.319381
Comments:

CommentFlooding occurred at Tokomaru Bay.

Affected LifelineThere was no power.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tolaga Bay
Map Location: -38.370254 178.307107
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicTolaga Bay recorded 916 mm (91.6 cm) of rain in three days.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentFlooding occurred at Tolaga Bay.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard
Comments:

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Tolaga Bay area had an estimated cost for works and fees of $350,000 ($596,000 2008 dollars).

LandslideLandslide at Waerenga-o-kuri
Map Location: -38.688738 177.772752
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe highway at Waerenga-o-kuri was blocked by a massive slip.

FloodingFlooding at Waiapu River
Map Location: -37.812969 178.385854
Comments:

Property DamageIn the Waiapu County 16-20 houses were uninhabitable.

Damage Cost525 kilometres of roading was damaged and two bridges were lost. The estimated cost of repairs was $3 milllion ($5,110,000 2008 dollars).

FloodingFlooding at Waikohu station
Map Location: -38.460269 177.789463
Comments:

EvacueesAt Waikohu, the population of about 1600 was evacuated.

FloodingFlooding at Waituhi
Map Location: -38.587206 177.891741
Comments:

ImpactAt Waituhi, a stopbank was breached.

Hawke's Bay

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Hawke's Bay
Comments:

CommentThe Hawke's Bay area experienced a fairly severe storm from the 6th to the 10th, resulting from Cyclone Bola.

CommentIt was the most significant storm in the region since Cyclone Alison in 1975.

DamageConsiderable damage was done in the Wairoa district.

Affected LifelineThe Wairoa-Napier highway was cut by flooding and slips. Major slips occurred on the road.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Hawke's Bay County at 5:15pm on the 9th and lasted until 9:00am on the 10th.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Hawkes Bay UC, for areas from Whirinaki Bluff to Raupunga, at 12:10pm on the 11th and lasted until 5:00pm on the 13th.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentHigh winds and heavy rainfall from a south-easterly direction caused moderate to severe flooding in some catchments.

DamageAround 30,000 ha land from the Esk River to Kotemaori was very severely affected by erosion and sedimentation. Severe stream bank erosion both undercut and by-passed trees and new gullies were cut as the overland flows increased. In deeper tephra soils, pumice fluidised and collapsed en masse. Land was eroded by gully erosion, soil slip and debris flow. Upper slope erosion occurred down on bedrock.

EvacueesIn the Hawkes Bay County 25 houses were evacuated, plus 10 fruitpickers.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe railway line from Napier to Wairoa was closed by slips in at least three places, for at least three days.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Aniwaniwa
Map Location: -38.744862 177.166161
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicAniwaniwa recorded 771 mm (77.1 cm) of rain in three days (Return Period more than 150 years).

FloodingFlooding at Clive
Map Location: -39.586947 176.912721
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at the River Mouth had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

FloodingFlooding at Dartmoor
Map Location: -39.482953 176.690437
Comments:

ImpactThe Tutaekuri River caused severe flooding in the Dartmoor Valley.

FloodingFlooding at Esk River
Map Location: -39.188987 176.788919
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Esk River had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

FloodingFlooding at Eskdale
Map Location: -39.394568 176.82922
Comments:

Peak River LevelThe Esk River peaked at 6.45 m at Waipunga Road.

FloodingFlooding at Fernhill station
Map Location: -39.590617 176.762035
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at Fernhill had a preliminary return period of 15 years.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Pukeorapa station
Map Location: -38.976652 177.702785
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicPukeorapa recorded 635 mm (63.5 cm) of rain in three days (Return Period 30 years). This was the highest intensity rainfall in the region.

FloodingFlooding at Tangoio
Map Location: -39.327667 176.914911
Comments:

DamageTe Ngaru Stream had a major flood, with considerable overflows down the valley. Major silt deposits were left and stream bank damage occurred.

FloodingFlooding at Tukituki River
Map Location: -39.900244 176.162889
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Upper Tukituki / Waipawa River had a preliminary return period of 5-10 years.

FloodingFlooding at Tutaekuri River
Map Location: -39.385469 176.46276
Comments:

ImpactThe Tukituki River and its main tributaries ran high, with some local flooding resulting.

Peak Water LevelThe Tukituki River reached a level of 4m at State Highway 2.

DamageTwo sections of stopbank 50m in length were completely washed away, and shingle was deposited over a large area of farmland.

Damage CostOn preliminary inspection, some damage to stopbanks would cost $375,000 ($639,000 2008 dollars) in Flood Protection Works.

Damage CostCatchment Control Works would cost a total of $177,000 ($302,000 2008 dollars).

CommentThe flood in the Tutaekuri River had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tutira
Map Location: -39.207531 176.881485
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicTutira recorded 649 mm (64.9 cm) of rain in two days (Return Period more than 150 years).

Physical CharacteristicThe Tutira area recorded 700 mm (70.0 cm) of rain in 48 hours.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

DamageTutira was overwhelmed by flooding and erosion. Severe damage was done to fencelines and tracks in the area. Class VII land suffered up to 20% bare land in places.

Affected LifelineSevere damage was done to roads in the Tutira area.

Physical CharacteristicLake Tutira reached a level 0.9m above the level during the 1985 storm.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Waimarama
Map Location: -39.815128 176.988843
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWaipoapoa (Road) recorded a rainfall intensity of 23.5 mm/hr (2.4 cm/hr).

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Wairoa
Map Location: -39.041861 177.423248
Comments:

Affected LifelineWairoa Airport was closed.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

ImpactIn the Northern Area flooding reached disasterous proportions, with houses flooded.

Affected LifelineWairoa's main bridge collapsed, splitting the town in two. Wairoa was also completely isolated from the south due to the highway being blocked. Many roads and bridges in the northern Wairoa area were impassable.

Affected LifelineThe town's water supply was destroyed when the bridge was washed away.

Affected LifelineThe sewage system was also disrupted.

Evacuees330 people were evacauted in the North Clyde area of Wairoa due to flooding.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for Wairoa at 3:40am on the 8th and lasted until 4pm on the 14th. Another declaration was in place until 4:10pm on the 17th.

CasualtiesTwo territorial soldiers were killed when a car plunged into the swollen Wairoa River.

CommentThe flood in the Wairoa River had a preliminary return period of more than 12 years.

Insurance PaymentWairoa insurance losses totalled $3,790,000 in 1991 ($5,549,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

FloodingFlooding at Whanawhana station
Map Location: -39.542825 176.431084
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at Whanawhana had a preliminary return period of 20 years.

FloodingFlooding at Whirinaki
Map Location: -39.379299 176.894594
Comments:

ImpactWater from the Esk River flooded the camping ground, Beck House and the Whirinaki water intake.

Affected LifelineThe flood waters closed State Highway 2, Tait Road and the Napier/Taupo Road.

Taranaki

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Taranaki
Comments:

CommentWeather forecast for Taranaki on the 8th: "Southeast winds up to severe gales in many places, cloudy with scattered rain, Bell Block southeasterlies to 62 knots."

CommentTaranaki was battered by the storm on the 7th and 8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Property DamageHundreds of houses were severely damaged. More than 50 houses lost their roofs, 439 houses were badly damaged, and a number were uninhabitable. Several houses and buildings suffered structural damage.

Property DamageGlasshouses were blown out. A reserves storage shed suffered serious damage, with the roller door blown in, the roof blown off and windows blown out. An estimated 10,000 trees were downed, 54 km of fencing destroyed, 90 haybarns and 30 dairy sheds severely damaged or destroyed and 40 houses affected.

Physical CharacteristicWinds blowing at more than 65 knots (120 km/hr) continued for 24 hours.

ImpactAll schools in North Taranaki and most shops were closed.

Affected LifelineSome roads were closed. State Highway 45 south of New Plymouth was closed from Omata to Okato.

DamageParks and reserves, including Pukekura Park and Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust, were severely damaged.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the North Taranaki Combined CD District at 6:10am on the 8th and lasted until 7:00am on the 10th.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Egmont County at 10:06am on the 8th and lasted until 4:53pm on the 10th.

InjuriesA man was injured when he fell from a roof received. He received two broken ankles, a broken hip and a sprained back. Two other people were taken to hospital after being blown over.

ImpactThere were several reports of cars being blown off roads.

Affected LifelinePower was cut in isolated areas throughout the province due to trees being blown on to power lines, lines being blown down, and roofing iron cutting lines.

DamageBurning power poles were a major problem in South Taranaki, as salt blown by the wind built up on the pole cross arms and set the poles alight.

DamageCyclone damage to the east coast was unquestionably one of the worst storm damage situations ever seen.

Crop DamageMillions of dollars in cash crops were decimated. Between 30% and 50% of the export crops, valued at up to $1 million ($1,700,000 2008 dollars), were lost during Cyclone Bola. Scattered damage was done to kiwifruit crops, some having 100% loss, and there was considerable leaf loss of vines. Much of the crop was bruised and unsuitable for export, and a lot of shelter was lost. Tamarillo crops also suffered severely during the storm.

Property DamageThe damage to farms was well into the $10,000's, because many cowhseds were destroyed. Many pastures were also burned by salt spray.

Damage CostCyclone Bola caused more than $3.5 million ($5,960,000 2008 dollars) worth of damage along a 20-km stretch of coastal South Taranaki.

Damage Cost$1.2 m ($2,040,000 2008 dollars) of production was lost.

Damage CostThe roading repair bill from Cyclone Bola totalled $25 million ($42,600,000 2008 dollars).

ImpactAn estimated 30% of all family property wiped out by the cyclone would be uninsured or seriously underinsured, with an estimated less than $300 million uninsured.

Insurance PaymentTaranaki insurance losses totalled $15,950,000 in 1991 ($23,352,000 2008 dollars), excluding Earthquake Commission claims.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Peak Water LevelSeas of up to 12.5 m were reported from Maui Tower.

ImpactThe seas battered offshore oil rigs and the Maui A production platform.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Property DamageSome water damage to buildings was reported, but nothing serious.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Bell Block
Map Location: -39.030626 174.145623
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicBell Block recorded average winds of 45 knots (83 km/hr).

Peak Wind SpeedBell Block recorded wind gusts of up to 62 knots (115 km/hr).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hurford
Map Location: -39.121611 174.008978
Comments:

Property DamageHurford Road Hall was lifted from its foundations and landed about a metre away. It was feared it would have to be demolished.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at New Plymouth
Map Location: -39.051214 174.06972
Comments:

Affected LifelineNew Plymouth airport was closed on the 7th and 8th.

Evacuees31 residents of New Plymouth Riverview Rest Home were evacuated after high winds tore the roof off a wing of the building.

DamageHigh winds at the port flipped small diving vessels and blew over a temporary hut.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Oakura
Map Location: -39.115805 173.953382
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedOakura recorded a wind gust of 97 knots (180 km/hr).

Property DamageThe Oakura township was the worst hit, with houses completely collapsing, roofs being lifted and roofing iron flying though the air.

Affected LifelineOakura was the worst hit by power cuts.

Affected LifelineOakura was without water.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Okato
Map Location: -39.191267 173.871121
Comments:

Affected LifelineSouth Oakato was isolated, with no telephone communications to New Plymouth.

Property DamageProperty damage occurred at Okato.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Pungarehu
Map Location: -39.278217 173.810265
Comments:

Property DamageNearly every farmer in the Rahotu and Pungarehu area had some damage to property.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Rahotu
Map Location: -39.325994 173.805636
Comments:

Property DamageNearly every farmer in the Rahotu and Pungarehu area had some damage to property.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Warea
Map Location: -39.231322 173.817214
Comments:

Affected LifelineWarea was isolated, with no telephone communications to New Plymouth.

Damage CostIn the Warea sector the winds devastated more than $1.7 million ($2,900,000 2008 dollars) in an area 10 km wide .

Tasman-Nelson

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Tasman-Nelson
Comments:

CommentThe Tasman-Nelson region was lashed by the cyclone's tail on the 12th, with widespread heavy rain and high winds buffetting the region. The cyclone was reduced to deep depression.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentSeveral rivers flooded.

Affected LifelineSurface flooding occurred on roads and some were closed.

CommentGolden Bay was the worst hit by the deluge. Heavy rain hit the western ranges and caused flooding in Golden Bay.

ImpactSurface flooding occurred on low-lying farmland.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Aorere River
Map Location: -41.009868 172.425427
Comments:

CommentRainfall was the heaviest in the Takaka and Aorere River catchments.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Bainham
Map Location: -40.76378 172.568483
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicBainham recorded 182.5 mm (18.3 cm) of rain in 24 hours.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Collingwood
Map Location: -40.67771 172.684352
Comments:

Affected LifelineCollingwood was cut off by road.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Riwaka
Map Location: -41.078397 172.990055
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicRiwaka recorded 150.3 mm (15.0 cm) of rain in 24 hours.

FloodingFlooding at Takaka
Map Location: -40.854005 172.800335
Comments:

Affected LifelineRoads were closed by flood waters from the Takaka River. Motupipi Street in Takaka was closed and State Highway 60 on either side of town was closed.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineSeveral new slips came down on Takaka Hill, one slip covering most of the road on the Takaka side.

FloodingFlooding at Takaka River
Map Location: -41.151344 172.684472
Comments:

CommentRainfall was the heaviest in the Takaka and Aorere river catchment

FloodingFlooding at Upper Takaka
Map Location: -41.027833 172.823593
Comments:

Affected LifelineState Highway 60 was closed at Upper Takaka, northwards.

FloodingFlooding at Waitapu
Map Location: -40.835548 172.802169
Comments:

Affected LifelineState Highway 60 was closed at Waitapu Bridge's Hollow, southwards.

References

Bell, R.; Gorman, R. Overview of Weather and Coastal Hazards in the Northland Region - Part II: Coastal.
Headline: Bay escapes full fury.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Four die in storm.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Police fear for yachtie.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Brown, P.C.; Jones, S. Wind risk in the Bay of Plenty. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Carter P.C.S. Wind damage in Kinleith Forest - effects of Cyclone Bola. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests.
Civil Defence Declarations Since 1 January 1963, Declared Civil Emergencies, 31 December 1999.
Declared Civil Defence Emergencies, 31 December 1999, Civil Defence Declarations since 1 January 1963.
Environment Waikato. State of Emergency Declarations in the district since 1976.
Gray, W. Overview of weather and coastal hazards in the Northland region, Part I: Weather hazards.
Hawke's Bay Catchment Board, report on storm of 6-10 March 1988.
Hawkes Bay Regional Council: www.hbrc.govt.nz.
Insurance Councils, The Cost of Weather Losses, Claims history (Updated 2004).
Johnston, D.D.; Pearse, L.J. (2007). Hazards in Hawke's Bay. Hawke's Bay Regional Council, Napier, New Zealand.
Knowles, R.L.; Paton, V.J. The effect of final-crop stocking on wind damage at Tikitere. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Korte, C.J. (1989). The Effect of Cyclone Bola on Hill Country Farms in the Gisbourne-East Coast Region: Physical Damage, Government Assistance, Cash Flows, and Debt.
Headline: Cyclone Bola.
http://library.christchurch.org.nz.
MCDEM, 2002.
Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. (1991). Takaka Flood Frequency, Maps and Newspapers, Reports of Historical Floods. Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council, pp.61.
New, D. Accounting for New Zealand plantation's risk to wind damage - facing the facts. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
New Zealand Meteorological Service. (2008). Meteorology of Extreme Rainfalls in New Zealand (Mark Pascoe, Ed.).
Headline: Frantic efforts to restore water.
The Northern Advocate, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Bola cuts $10m swather of damage.
The Northern Advocate, 12 March 1988.
Rasmussen, J.H. Wind damage in Northland forests. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Headline: $8m storm chaos bill.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Crop damage devastating.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone backlash kills 4.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone Bola.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Farm buildings demolished.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Soldiers die in cyclone's wake.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Standby water supply fails in Gisborne.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Storm special.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: The weather.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Weathering the storm.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: $3.5 m storm trail toll.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Civil defence in recovery phase.
Taranaki Herald,.11 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone tail swipes Nelson.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Insurance crisis after storm.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Older roof nails proved better.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Taranaki Regional Council. Cyclone Bola Civil Defence Report.
Turner, R.M. Canterbury plains and Lake Taupo forests. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests.

ExtremeMarch 1988 North Island Ex-tropical Cyclone Bola ( 1988-03-06 )

5-150+ years

Ex-tropical Cyclone Bola struck most regions of the North Island, in particular Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Gisborne and Northland, bringing widespread damage with combinations of heavy rain, flooding, high winds and heavy seas. Two people were drowned in Northland, three in Gisborne and two in Hawke's Bay. Three people were injured by high winds in Taranaki. The tail end of the cyclone later struck Tasman-Nelson.

North Island

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at North Island
Duration:   7  days - From the 6th to the 12th of March.
Comments:

CommentWeather forecast on the 8th: "A deep depression about 120 km north of North Cape is expected to remain near northern New Zealand over the next few days. A ridge of high pressure should persist across the south of the South Island, until Thursday. A very strong east to southeast flow is expected over northern and central NZ."

CauseEx-tropical Cyclone Bola. On the 8th, the front was stationary off Cape Brett, bringing heavy rain and high winds.

Affected LifelineState Highway 35 was closed between Opotiki (Bay of Plenty) and East Cape (Gisborne). State Highway 2 between Gisborne and Opotiki was also blocked.

Affected LifelineThe Napier-Gisborne railway was closed.

Insurance PaymentInsurance Industry Payouts for the whole event totalled $37,000,000 ($63,000,000 2008 dollars), excluding Earthquake Commission claims.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicOne location recorded 593 mm (59.3 cm) of rain for the event.

Northland

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Northland
Comments:

Affected LifelineRoads around the region were out of action.

Affected LifelinePower cuts occurred and telephone services were severely disrupted. Most of the region was without power and telephone lines. Widespread damage was done to power lines and phone lines.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for North Kaipara, lasting from the 10th to the 13th.

Insurance PaymentNorthland Insurance losses totalled $3,720,000 in 1991 ($5,446,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

DurationFrom the 6th to the 9th.

Crop DamageWidespread damage was done to crops and horticulture. Damage was caused to shallow rooted trees such as citrus and tamarillos. More than $10 million ($17,000,000 2008 dollars) damage was done to Northland's farming and horticulture.

Damage CostLosses of $5 million ($8,500,000 2008 dollars) were sustained by the region's horticultural industry.

Crop DamageNorthland's kiwifruit industry was likely to suffer $3 million ($5,000,000 2008 dollars) in lost income earnings.

Crop DamageTamarillo growers faced industry losses of $750,000 ($1,300,000 2008 dollars).

Property DamageAn estimated 500 homes were damaged.

Physical CharacteristicThe low pressure system had a nadir (lowest pressure) of 980 hPa.

DamageWinds caused "windsnap" damage in conjunction with saturated soils, and wind throw of many of the trees used in the region for farm and horticulture shelter and specimen plantings.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicThere was up to 500 mm (50.0 cm) of rain over a six-day period.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentTorrential rain caused flooding in Northland on the 7th.

CasualtiesA 74-year-old man was drowned on the 8th after he was swept away by flood waters while trying to clear stock.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

DamageSwollen tides shattered craft moored at coastal areas throughout the region.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

DamageThe high winds caused significant damage to Northland forests.

DamageDamage was done to 1,481 ha of Timberland's Northland Forest. Of trees aged 0-4 years, 794 ha were damaged, or 53%. Of trees aged 5-14 years, 547 ha were damaged, or 37%. Of trees aged 14-20 years, 3 ha were damaged, or 2%. Of trees aged over 20 years, 140 ha were damaged, or 9%.

Physical CharacteristicWinds gusted up to 130 km/hr.

FloodingFlooding at Dargaville
Map Location: -35.944137 173.869958
Comments:

Affected LifelineAt Dargaville, 5000 residents were left without a water supply when an old railway bridge 30km north of Dargaville carried away the town's water pipeline.

Declared EmergencyDargaville was under a Civil Defence Emergency.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Hokianga Harbour
Map Location: -35.418484 173.422286
Comments:

Damage CostFlood damage to Hokianga roads was estimated at $300,000-$400,000 ($500,000-$700,000 2008 dollars).

Damage4-5 hectares of the Hokianga county council's Haretuku pine forest had to be written off because of damage from the cyclone.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineAt least 20 slips occurred from Te Karae to Motuti.

FloodingFlooding at Kaihu River
Map Location: -35.759652 173.67999
Comments:

EvacueesFour homes were evacuated in the Kaihu Valley.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Kohukohu
Map Location: -35.361871 173.542272
Comments:

Affected LifelineIn the Kohukohu area 100 people were isolated by closed roads for about four days.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Marsden Point
Map Location: -35.840268 174.498311
Comments:

CommentThere was a storm surge at Marsden Point, over and above the predicted tide.

Physical CharacteristicSouth-east alongshore winds caused coastal set-up, and combined with a peak inverted barometer (IB) set-up of 0.27 m, resulting in a peak storm surge of 0.63 m at Marsden Point at around 12am on the 7th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedThere were peak south-east alongshore winds of up to 25 m/s (90 km/hr).

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Opua
Map Location: -35.314323 174.11743
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicOpua had a storm surge of +0.50m.

FloodingFlooding at Te Karaka
Map Location: -35.428486 173.406406
Comments:

Evacuees600 people were evacuated at Te Karaka.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Whangarei
Map Location: -35.719519 174.298397
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei recorded 302 mm (30.2 cm) of rain in 48 hours - 20 year rainfall.

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei recorded 234 mm (23.4 cm) of rain in two days (Return Period 30 years).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentThere was widespread flooding in Whangarei.

Affected LifelineOverflowing sewers caused health risks.

CasualtiesA loader driver was killed after going over a bank.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWhangarei had gale force winds of more than 100 km/hr.

Property DamageThe high winds lifted roofs.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12am and 4am on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 40 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 50 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 55 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 74 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 7th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 105 km/hr.

Peak Wind SpeedBetween 12am and 4am on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 126 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 112 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 97 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 86 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 8th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 65 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12am and 4am on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 47 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4am and 8am on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 54 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 8am and 12pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 68 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 12pm and 4pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 93 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicBetween 4pm and 8pm on the 9th, Whangarei recorded a maximum wind gust of 74 km/hr.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

ImpactThe winds whipped up tides, wrenching craft from their mooring.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard
Comments:

DamageThe worst damage to forests was in the Whangarei area, caused by an unusual combination of torrential rain, coupled with strong and prolonged winds from the south-easterly direction.

Auckland

FloodingFlooding at Auckland
Comments:

CommentAuckland experienced some minor surface flooding on the 8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Property DamageRoofs were lifted and trees blown down.

Affected LifelinePower was cut off to some areas.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicAuckland had a storm surge of +0.40 m.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hauraki Gulf
Map Location: -36.626375 174.933275
Comments:

CommentThere were storm warnings in the Hauraki Gulf from Bream Head to Cape Colville for winds of 40 knots (74 km/hr), gusting to 50 knots (93 km/hr).

Waikato

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Waikato
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe Coromandel Peninsula had no power overnight on the 7th/8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Crop DamageThere were fruit losses in the Waikato.

ImpactDairy farmers in areas without power experienced loses through being unable to milk.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kinleith Forest
Map Location: -38.434697 176.039837
Comments:

DamageCyclone Bola caused considerable damage to Kinleith Forest, with over 5000 ha of mature and semi mature radiata pine affected. Scattered damage occurred over a wide range of the forest, concentrated in the western parts (Tatua, Whakamaru, Waikato and Pouakani North Block). The most severe damage was in the Whakamaru/ Maraetai area. Damage was characterised by stem bending or breakage on most sites, and uprooting was noted in Tatua.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Taupo
Map Location: -38.69531 176.070758
Comments:

DamageHigh winds straight out of the Kaimanawa Ranges struck the Taupo Forest, causing damage of varying degrees to 700 ha of the northern area of the forest. The affected trees were from 2 years old to 14 years old, the most severe damage being in 12-14-year-old stands recently production thinned. 4000 ha of young stands aged 2-6 years old received damage affecting from 20-80% of trees in the stand.

Peak Wind SpeedIn the Taupo area a maximum wind speed of 95 km/hr was recorded on the 7th.

DamageIn the Timberlands Kinleith Forests and TFL Forests, over 17,000 ha was damaged.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Te Awamutu
Map Location: -38.009384 175.334988
Comments:

Affected LifelinePower was cut in Te Awamutu for 12 hours, with the main services in town disrupted after power poles between Te Awamutu and Karapiro were blown over by gale force winds. The town was without power overnight on the 7th/8th.

FloodingFlooding at Thames
Map Location: -37.140988 175.533107
Comments:

CommentIntensive flooding occurred in the Thames Valley region.

DamageA 26-year old dam cracked and slumped in two places following heavy rain.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for Thames Valley UC at 3:05pm on the 8th. The Thames Coast declaration lasted for three days.

CommentThe Return Period was estimated at a 5-year event.

Evacuees84 people were evacuated in Thames Valley UC due to flooding. 52 evacuees were registered at the Thames welfare centre, and 32 registered at Te Puru.

Bay of Plenty

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Bay of Plenty
Comments:

DamageIn the Bay of Plenty region, 2500 ha of trees were affected. Less than one-third of the volume of timber was blown down as in Cyclone Bernie. The crop damged was much younger than in Cyclone Bernie.

Physical CharacteristicAn avergae gust speed (obtained by averaging for Rotorua, Gisborne and Tauranga) of 51 knots (94 km/hr) was recorded on the 7th and 8th (Return Period 22 years).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kaingaroa Forest
Map Location: -38.411566 176.570546
Comments:

DamageThe main damage to forests in the Bay of Plenty district was done to forests in the south and west of Kaingaroa.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Opotiki
Map Location: -38.005993 177.293236
Comments:

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Opotiki area (18 sites) required a total of $1.30 million ($2,210,000 2008 dollars) of works to restore it.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Rotorua
Map Location: -38.140434 176.262282
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedRotorua Airport recorded peak gusts of 100 km/hr during one hour.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 329 km on the 6th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 796 km on the 7th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 501 km on the 8th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 494 km on the 9th.

Physical CharacteristicRotorua recorded a 24-hour wind run of 446 km on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tauranga
Map Location: -37.679532 176.173022
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedTauranga recorded winds of up to 44 knots (80 km/hr) on the 7th.

Property DamageRoof iron was lifted off some buildings and a glass window was blown in at the Inland Revenue Department.

Affected LifelineThere were power faults caused by the wind. Welcome Bay, Kaitemako Road and Maungatapu were without power.

Affected LifelineA Tauranga-Wellington flight was cancelled on the 7th.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Affected LifelineOne ship was delayed by rough seas and high winds.

ImpactAn Auckland yachtsman went missing after leaving Tauranga.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tikitere
Map Location: -38.064347 176.351141
Comments:

DamageThe Tikitere agroforestry trial experienced severe damage by gale force winds on the 7th and 8th. The winds coming from the South-east caused widespread top breakage but few trees were windthrown. Cyclone Bola was the third major cyclone to affect the trial.

Gisborne

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Gisborne
Comments:

CauseThe centre of the low did not come anywhere near Gisborne. The system had lost its tropical cyclone appearance by the time heavy rain started in Gisborne. The rain occurred in an area where tropical air brought down by the low converged with cooler air, brought up from the south-east on the northern flank of an anticyclone. Gisborne also lay within a “double jet” structure - in a region between the poleward exit region to one jet, and the equatorwards entrance region to another.

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Gisborne areas (15 sites) required a total of $1.20 million ($2,040,000 2008 dollars) of works to resotre it.

Damage CostDamage to forests on the East Coast was estimated at $8.6 million ($14,700,000 2008 dollars).

Insurance PaymentInsurance losses for East Cape and Poverty Bay totalled $3,530,000 in 1991 ($5,168,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

Total DamageThe damage totalled $111 million ($189,000,000 2008 dollars).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the East Cape region at 9pm on the 7th and lasted until the 13th. The declaration was re-extended for Poverty Bay, Waikohu County and Waiapu County from the 22nd to the 25th. DRC was appointed on the 9th for 28 days, and reappointed on 1st April and 1st May, for 28 days each time.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Poverty Bay Combined District at 4:27pm on the 7th and lasted until 9pm on the 7th.

ImpactTwelve people were rescued by a helicopter from flood-ravanged East Coast areas. By the third day, 17 helicopters were operating for call-outs.

Crop DamageMillions of dollars worth of damage was done to crops.

Affected LifelineWater supplies in many towns ruptured.

Property DamageDozens of homes were severely damaged.

DamageVery extensive and severe erosion occurred into the East Cape.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

CommentRain fell in Gisborne from the 6th.

CommentA heavy rain warning was issued, but the amounts that eventuated were far in excess of the forecast.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

CommentMassive landslides occurred.

FloodingFlooding at Gisborne City
Map Location: -38.656661 178.017356
Comments:

Affected LifelineGisborne streets were flooded.

Affected LifelineThe Gisborne water supply failed on the 7th, leaving the population of 30,000 without water.

Damage CostRepairs to the water supply in Gisborne were estimated to cost $6.6 million ($11,200,000 2008 dollars).

Evacuees3000 people were evacuated at Gisborne.

Affected LifelineFlights were cancelled, stranding hundreds of air travellers.

Insurance PaymentInsurance losses for Gisborne totalled $4,580,000 in 1991 ($6,705,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, assistance costs were estimated at $21 million in 1989 ($35,000,000 2008 dollars), paid to farmers under the Cyclone Bola farming assistance programme.

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, the storm damage cost for repairing non-insurable on-farm storm damage (fences, farm tracks, etc.) was estimated at $18 million in 1989 ($29,100,000 2008 dollars).

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, income was reduced by $18 million (1989) ($29,100,000 2008 dollars) due to reduced grazing area and livestock numbers, and $3 million ($4,860,000 2008 dollars) the following year - a total of $21 million ($35,000,000 2008 dollars).

Damage CostIn the Gisborne-East Coast hill country, farm valuations reduced by an estimated $20 million ($32,400,000 2008 dollars).

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Glenross station
Map Location: -38.332588 178.072908
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicGlenross/ Waimata recorded 917 mm (91.7 cm) of rain in four days (Return Period well over 150 years).

FloodingFlooding at Hicks Bay
Map Location: -37.590857 178.282493
Comments:

EvacueesThe Hicks Bay Motor camp was evacuated.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Mangatuna
Map Location: -38.30045 178.26526
Comments:

CommentMangatuna was hard hit by flooding and gales.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CasualtiesThree people were drowned at Mangatuna, near Tolaga Bay, when they were trapped in a car that was swept away by flood waters at 8:30pm on the 7th.

FloodingFlooding at Ormond
Map Location: -38.559177 177.924843
Comments:

ImpactMajor flooding occurred at Ormond. Stopbanks to the south were breached in the Kaiteretahi/ Ormond area, isolating residents.

EvacueesIn the Kaitaratahi/ Ormond area 400 people were evacuated to Waikohu College and Crainwich Farm.

FloodingFlooding at Ruatoria
Map Location: -37.890508 178.310264
Comments:

Affected LifelineRuatoria was isolated, with bridge approaches washed away.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Te Karaka
Map Location: -38.467237 177.870255
Comments:

Evacuees400 people were evacuated at Te Karaka on the 7th when the swollen Waipaoa River came close to flooding the township.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Te Puia
Map Location: -38.054756 178.309912
Comments:

Peak RainfallTe Puia Springs recorded 419 mm (41.9 cm) of rain in 24 hours (Return Period more than 150 years).

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

Affected LifelineTe Puia Springs was isolated, with roads washed out and no power.

FloodingFlooding at Tikitiki
Map Location: -37.797294 178.411972
Comments:

Affected LifelineTikitiki was isolated.

FloodingFlooding at Tokomaru Bay
Map Location: -38.12831 178.319381
Comments:

CommentFlooding occurred at Tokomaru Bay.

Affected LifelineThere was no power.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tolaga Bay
Map Location: -38.370254 178.307107
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicTolaga Bay recorded 916 mm (91.6 cm) of rain in three days.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentFlooding occurred at Tolaga Bay.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard
Comments:

Damage CostState Highway 35 in the Tolaga Bay area had an estimated cost for works and fees of $350,000 ($596,000 2008 dollars).

LandslideLandslide at Waerenga-o-kuri
Map Location: -38.688738 177.772752
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe highway at Waerenga-o-kuri was blocked by a massive slip.

FloodingFlooding at Waiapu River
Map Location: -37.812969 178.385854
Comments:

Property DamageIn the Waiapu County 16-20 houses were uninhabitable.

Damage Cost525 kilometres of roading was damaged and two bridges were lost. The estimated cost of repairs was $3 milllion ($5,110,000 2008 dollars).

FloodingFlooding at Waikohu station
Map Location: -38.460269 177.789463
Comments:

EvacueesAt Waikohu, the population of about 1600 was evacuated.

FloodingFlooding at Waituhi
Map Location: -38.587206 177.891741
Comments:

ImpactAt Waituhi, a stopbank was breached.

Hawke's Bay

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Hawke's Bay
Comments:

CommentThe Hawke's Bay area experienced a fairly severe storm from the 6th to the 10th, resulting from Cyclone Bola.

CommentIt was the most significant storm in the region since Cyclone Alison in 1975.

DamageConsiderable damage was done in the Wairoa district.

Affected LifelineThe Wairoa-Napier highway was cut by flooding and slips. Major slips occurred on the road.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Hawke's Bay County at 5:15pm on the 9th and lasted until 9:00am on the 10th.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Hawkes Bay UC, for areas from Whirinaki Bluff to Raupunga, at 12:10pm on the 11th and lasted until 5:00pm on the 13th.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentHigh winds and heavy rainfall from a south-easterly direction caused moderate to severe flooding in some catchments.

DamageAround 30,000 ha land from the Esk River to Kotemaori was very severely affected by erosion and sedimentation. Severe stream bank erosion both undercut and by-passed trees and new gullies were cut as the overland flows increased. In deeper tephra soils, pumice fluidised and collapsed en masse. Land was eroded by gully erosion, soil slip and debris flow. Upper slope erosion occurred down on bedrock.

EvacueesIn the Hawkes Bay County 25 houses were evacuated, plus 10 fruitpickers.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineThe railway line from Napier to Wairoa was closed by slips in at least three places, for at least three days.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Aniwaniwa
Map Location: -38.744862 177.166161
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicAniwaniwa recorded 771 mm (77.1 cm) of rain in three days (Return Period more than 150 years).

FloodingFlooding at Clive
Map Location: -39.586947 176.912721
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at the River Mouth had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

FloodingFlooding at Dartmoor
Map Location: -39.482953 176.690437
Comments:

ImpactThe Tutaekuri River caused severe flooding in the Dartmoor Valley.

FloodingFlooding at Esk River
Map Location: -39.188987 176.788919
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Esk River had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

FloodingFlooding at Eskdale
Map Location: -39.394568 176.82922
Comments:

Peak River LevelThe Esk River peaked at 6.45 m at Waipunga Road.

FloodingFlooding at Fernhill station
Map Location: -39.590617 176.762035
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at Fernhill had a preliminary return period of 15 years.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Pukeorapa station
Map Location: -38.976652 177.702785
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicPukeorapa recorded 635 mm (63.5 cm) of rain in three days (Return Period 30 years). This was the highest intensity rainfall in the region.

FloodingFlooding at Tangoio
Map Location: -39.327667 176.914911
Comments:

DamageTe Ngaru Stream had a major flood, with considerable overflows down the valley. Major silt deposits were left and stream bank damage occurred.

FloodingFlooding at Tukituki River
Map Location: -39.900244 176.162889
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Upper Tukituki / Waipawa River had a preliminary return period of 5-10 years.

FloodingFlooding at Tutaekuri River
Map Location: -39.385469 176.46276
Comments:

ImpactThe Tukituki River and its main tributaries ran high, with some local flooding resulting.

Peak Water LevelThe Tukituki River reached a level of 4m at State Highway 2.

DamageTwo sections of stopbank 50m in length were completely washed away, and shingle was deposited over a large area of farmland.

Damage CostOn preliminary inspection, some damage to stopbanks would cost $375,000 ($639,000 2008 dollars) in Flood Protection Works.

Damage CostCatchment Control Works would cost a total of $177,000 ($302,000 2008 dollars).

CommentThe flood in the Tutaekuri River had a preliminary return period of 30 years.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tutira
Map Location: -39.207531 176.881485
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicTutira recorded 649 mm (64.9 cm) of rain in two days (Return Period more than 150 years).

Physical CharacteristicThe Tutira area recorded 700 mm (70.0 cm) of rain in 48 hours.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

DamageTutira was overwhelmed by flooding and erosion. Severe damage was done to fencelines and tracks in the area. Class VII land suffered up to 20% bare land in places.

Affected LifelineSevere damage was done to roads in the Tutira area.

Physical CharacteristicLake Tutira reached a level 0.9m above the level during the 1985 storm.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Waimarama
Map Location: -39.815128 176.988843
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicWaipoapoa (Road) recorded a rainfall intensity of 23.5 mm/hr (2.4 cm/hr).

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Wairoa
Map Location: -39.041861 177.423248
Comments:

Affected LifelineWairoa Airport was closed.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

ImpactIn the Northern Area flooding reached disasterous proportions, with houses flooded.

Affected LifelineWairoa's main bridge collapsed, splitting the town in two. Wairoa was also completely isolated from the south due to the highway being blocked. Many roads and bridges in the northern Wairoa area were impassable.

Affected LifelineThe town's water supply was destroyed when the bridge was washed away.

Affected LifelineThe sewage system was also disrupted.

Evacuees330 people were evacauted in the North Clyde area of Wairoa due to flooding.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for Wairoa at 3:40am on the 8th and lasted until 4pm on the 14th. Another declaration was in place until 4:10pm on the 17th.

CasualtiesTwo territorial soldiers were killed when a car plunged into the swollen Wairoa River.

CommentThe flood in the Wairoa River had a preliminary return period of more than 12 years.

Insurance PaymentWairoa insurance losses totalled $3,790,000 in 1991 ($5,549,000 2008 dollars), excluding the Earthquake Commission.

FloodingFlooding at Whanawhana station
Map Location: -39.542825 176.431084
Comments:

CommentThe flood in the Ngaruroro River at Whanawhana had a preliminary return period of 20 years.

FloodingFlooding at Whirinaki
Map Location: -39.379299 176.894594
Comments:

ImpactWater from the Esk River flooded the camping ground, Beck House and the Whirinaki water intake.

Affected LifelineThe flood waters closed State Highway 2, Tait Road and the Napier/Taupo Road.

Taranaki

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Taranaki
Comments:

CommentWeather forecast for Taranaki on the 8th: "Southeast winds up to severe gales in many places, cloudy with scattered rain, Bell Block southeasterlies to 62 knots."

CommentTaranaki was battered by the storm on the 7th and 8th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust
Comments:

Property DamageHundreds of houses were severely damaged. More than 50 houses lost their roofs, 439 houses were badly damaged, and a number were uninhabitable. Several houses and buildings suffered structural damage.

Property DamageGlasshouses were blown out. A reserves storage shed suffered serious damage, with the roller door blown in, the roof blown off and windows blown out. An estimated 10,000 trees were downed, 54 km of fencing destroyed, 90 haybarns and 30 dairy sheds severely damaged or destroyed and 40 houses affected.

Physical CharacteristicWinds blowing at more than 65 knots (120 km/hr) continued for 24 hours.

ImpactAll schools in North Taranaki and most shops were closed.

Affected LifelineSome roads were closed. State Highway 45 south of New Plymouth was closed from Omata to Okato.

DamageParks and reserves, including Pukekura Park and Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust, were severely damaged.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the North Taranaki Combined CD District at 6:10am on the 8th and lasted until 7:00am on the 10th.

Declared EmergencyA Civil Defence Emergency was declared for the Egmont County at 10:06am on the 8th and lasted until 4:53pm on the 10th.

InjuriesA man was injured when he fell from a roof received. He received two broken ankles, a broken hip and a sprained back. Two other people were taken to hospital after being blown over.

ImpactThere were several reports of cars being blown off roads.

Affected LifelinePower was cut in isolated areas throughout the province due to trees being blown on to power lines, lines being blown down, and roofing iron cutting lines.

DamageBurning power poles were a major problem in South Taranaki, as salt blown by the wind built up on the pole cross arms and set the poles alight.

DamageCyclone damage to the east coast was unquestionably one of the worst storm damage situations ever seen.

Crop DamageMillions of dollars in cash crops were decimated. Between 30% and 50% of the export crops, valued at up to $1 million ($1,700,000 2008 dollars), were lost during Cyclone Bola. Scattered damage was done to kiwifruit crops, some having 100% loss, and there was considerable leaf loss of vines. Much of the crop was bruised and unsuitable for export, and a lot of shelter was lost. Tamarillo crops also suffered severely during the storm.

Property DamageThe damage to farms was well into the $10,000's, because many cowhseds were destroyed. Many pastures were also burned by salt spray.

Damage CostCyclone Bola caused more than $3.5 million ($5,960,000 2008 dollars) worth of damage along a 20-km stretch of coastal South Taranaki.

Damage Cost$1.2 m ($2,040,000 2008 dollars) of production was lost.

Damage CostThe roading repair bill from Cyclone Bola totalled $25 million ($42,600,000 2008 dollars).

ImpactAn estimated 30% of all family property wiped out by the cyclone would be uninsured or seriously underinsured, with an estimated less than $300 million uninsured.

Insurance PaymentTaranaki insurance losses totalled $15,950,000 in 1991 ($23,352,000 2008 dollars), excluding Earthquake Commission claims.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal
Comments:

Peak Water LevelSeas of up to 12.5 m were reported from Maui Tower.

ImpactThe seas battered offshore oil rigs and the Maui A production platform.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain
Comments:

Property DamageSome water damage to buildings was reported, but nothing serious.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Bell Block
Map Location: -39.030626 174.145623
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicBell Block recorded average winds of 45 knots (83 km/hr).

Peak Wind SpeedBell Block recorded wind gusts of up to 62 knots (115 km/hr).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hurford
Map Location: -39.121611 174.008978
Comments:

Property DamageHurford Road Hall was lifted from its foundations and landed about a metre away. It was feared it would have to be demolished.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at New Plymouth
Map Location: -39.051214 174.06972
Comments:

Affected LifelineNew Plymouth airport was closed on the 7th and 8th.

Evacuees31 residents of New Plymouth Riverview Rest Home were evacuated after high winds tore the roof off a wing of the building.

DamageHigh winds at the port flipped small diving vessels and blew over a temporary hut.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Oakura
Map Location: -39.115805 173.953382
Comments:

Peak Wind SpeedOakura recorded a wind gust of 97 knots (180 km/hr).

Property DamageThe Oakura township was the worst hit, with houses completely collapsing, roofs being lifted and roofing iron flying though the air.

Affected LifelineOakura was the worst hit by power cuts.

Affected LifelineOakura was without water.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Okato
Map Location: -39.191267 173.871121
Comments:

Affected LifelineSouth Oakato was isolated, with no telephone communications to New Plymouth.

Property DamageProperty damage occurred at Okato.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Pungarehu
Map Location: -39.278217 173.810265
Comments:

Property DamageNearly every farmer in the Rahotu and Pungarehu area had some damage to property.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Rahotu
Map Location: -39.325994 173.805636
Comments:

Property DamageNearly every farmer in the Rahotu and Pungarehu area had some damage to property.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Warea
Map Location: -39.231322 173.817214
Comments:

Affected LifelineWarea was isolated, with no telephone communications to New Plymouth.

Damage CostIn the Warea sector the winds devastated more than $1.7 million ($2,900,000 2008 dollars) in an area 10 km wide .

Tasman-Nelson

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Tasman-Nelson
Comments:

CommentThe Tasman-Nelson region was lashed by the cyclone's tail on the 12th, with widespread heavy rain and high winds buffetting the region. The cyclone was reduced to deep depression.

FloodingFlooding
Comments:

CommentSeveral rivers flooded.

Affected LifelineSurface flooding occurred on roads and some were closed.

CommentGolden Bay was the worst hit by the deluge. Heavy rain hit the western ranges and caused flooding in Golden Bay.

ImpactSurface flooding occurred on low-lying farmland.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Aorere River
Map Location: -41.009868 172.425427
Comments:

CommentRainfall was the heaviest in the Takaka and Aorere River catchments.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Bainham
Map Location: -40.76378 172.568483
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicBainham recorded 182.5 mm (18.3 cm) of rain in 24 hours.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Collingwood
Map Location: -40.67771 172.684352
Comments:

Affected LifelineCollingwood was cut off by road.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Riwaka
Map Location: -41.078397 172.990055
Comments:

Physical CharacteristicRiwaka recorded 150.3 mm (15.0 cm) of rain in 24 hours.

FloodingFlooding at Takaka
Map Location: -40.854005 172.800335
Comments:

Affected LifelineRoads were closed by flood waters from the Takaka River. Motupipi Street in Takaka was closed and State Highway 60 on either side of town was closed.

LandslideLandslide
Comments:

Affected LifelineSeveral new slips came down on Takaka Hill, one slip covering most of the road on the Takaka side.

FloodingFlooding at Takaka River
Map Location: -41.151344 172.684472
Comments:

CommentRainfall was the heaviest in the Takaka and Aorere river catchment

FloodingFlooding at Upper Takaka
Map Location: -41.027833 172.823593
Comments:

Affected LifelineState Highway 60 was closed at Upper Takaka, northwards.

FloodingFlooding at Waitapu
Map Location: -40.835548 172.802169
Comments:

Affected LifelineState Highway 60 was closed at Waitapu Bridge's Hollow, southwards.

References

Bell, R.; Gorman, R. Overview of Weather and Coastal Hazards in the Northland Region - Part II: Coastal.
Headline: Bay escapes full fury.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Four die in storm.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Police fear for yachtie.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 8 March 1988.
Brown, P.C.; Jones, S. Wind risk in the Bay of Plenty. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Carter P.C.S. Wind damage in Kinleith Forest - effects of Cyclone Bola. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests.
Civil Defence Declarations Since 1 January 1963, Declared Civil Emergencies, 31 December 1999.
Declared Civil Defence Emergencies, 31 December 1999, Civil Defence Declarations since 1 January 1963.
Environment Waikato. State of Emergency Declarations in the district since 1976.
Gray, W. Overview of weather and coastal hazards in the Northland region, Part I: Weather hazards.
Hawke's Bay Catchment Board, report on storm of 6-10 March 1988.
Hawkes Bay Regional Council: www.hbrc.govt.nz.
Insurance Councils, The Cost of Weather Losses, Claims history (Updated 2004).
Johnston, D.D.; Pearse, L.J. (2007). Hazards in Hawke's Bay. Hawke's Bay Regional Council, Napier, New Zealand.
Knowles, R.L.; Paton, V.J. The effect of final-crop stocking on wind damage at Tikitere. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Korte, C.J. (1989). The Effect of Cyclone Bola on Hill Country Farms in the Gisbourne-East Coast Region: Physical Damage, Government Assistance, Cash Flows, and Debt.
Headline: Cyclone Bola.
http://library.christchurch.org.nz.
MCDEM, 2002.
Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. (1991). Takaka Flood Frequency, Maps and Newspapers, Reports of Historical Floods. Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council, pp.61.
New, D. Accounting for New Zealand plantation's risk to wind damage - facing the facts. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
New Zealand Meteorological Service. (2008). Meteorology of Extreme Rainfalls in New Zealand (Mark Pascoe, Ed.).
Headline: Frantic efforts to restore water.
The Northern Advocate, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Bola cuts $10m swather of damage.
The Northern Advocate, 12 March 1988.
Rasmussen, J.H. Wind damage in Northland forests. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin 146.
Headline: $8m storm chaos bill.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Crop damage devastating.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone backlash kills 4.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone Bola.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Farm buildings demolished.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Soldiers die in cyclone's wake.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Standby water supply fails in Gisborne.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Storm special.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: The weather.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: Weathering the storm.
Taranaki Herald, 8 March 1988.
Headline: $3.5 m storm trail toll.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Civil defence in recovery phase.
Taranaki Herald,.11 March 1988.
Headline: Cyclone tail swipes Nelson.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Insurance crisis after storm.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Headline: Older roof nails proved better.
Taranaki Herald, 11 March 1988.
Taranaki Regional Council. Cyclone Bola Civil Defence Report.
Turner, R.M. Canterbury plains and Lake Taupo forests. Workshop on Wind Damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests.