ExtremeApril 1968 New Zealand Ex-tropical Cyclone Giselle ( 1968-04-09 )
  • Download as PDF
  • Download as XML

Ex-tropical Cyclone Giselle affected every region in New Zealand, with high winds, heavy rain, flooding, landslips and high seas. The interislander 'Wahine' sunk in Wellington Harbour during the storm, with the loss of 51 lives. Other casualties: one in Northland, two in Wellington due to high winds: a man who went missing on Stewart Island. Weather-related injuries were reported in Waikato, Manawatu-Wanganui and Wellington.

New Zealand

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at New Zealand

Duration:   7  days - From the 9th to the 15th of April.

CauseEx-tropical Cyclone Giselle. Cyclone Giselle formed in the Coral Sea near the Soloman Islands, over 3000km north-west of New Zealand, on 5th April. The system moved in a southsoutheast direction, passing north of New Zealand. On the 9th, it passed along the east coast of the North Island from North cape, and after crossing Cook Strait the system travelled down the east coast of the South Island to Banks Peninsula, remaining close to the South Island for some days longer. The combination of a complex frontal zone, which extended from Tasmania, and a depression 800 km south-west of Campbell Island brought heavy rain to places. On the 12th, the cyclonic storm returned in a south-westerly direction and caused heavy flooding in Southland and West Otago.

CommentThe storm was the worst on record for many parts of New Zealand. It was classed as the most destructive to strike the country since the early days of settlement, exceeding in violence the storm of 2nd February 1936.

Insurance PaymentInsurance Industry Payouts totalled $3,500,000 ($52,750,000 2008 dollars).

Comment1968 was the mostly costly year on record for the insurance industry (as at 2003).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Affected LifelineThe North Island had no power from the South Island Cook Strait cable due to two faults. The cut in the Cook Strait cable supply was caused when high winds brought down lines from the Haywards substation in Wellington and also somewhere between Benmore and Fighting Bay in the South Island.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

CommentHigh rainfall occurred in Northland, Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Christchurch and Banks Peninsula.

North Island

FloodingFlooding at North Island

Affected LifelinePart of State Highway 2 between Waihi and Tauranga was washed away.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

ImpactSmall craft were driven ashore in areas from the Bay of Plenty to Wellington.

Northland

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Northland

CommentEx-tropical Cyclone Giselle reached Cape Reinga early on the morning of the 9th.

Affected LifelineThree main highways were closed on the 9th. All roads to the Far North were affected by slips, subsidence or flooding.

Damage CostThe damage in Kaitaia and Dargaville was estimated at $150,000 ($2,260,000 2008 dollars).

Damage CostThe Ministry of Works believed that road damage in Northland would total $150,000 ($2,260,000 2008 dollars).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Property DamageHigh winds caused damage to many homes, buildings and farms.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

CommentTorrential rain fell in Northland on the 9th.

Physical CharacteristicNorthland received 26 in (66.04 cm) of rain in in less than two weeks.

FloodingFlooding

CommentExtensive flooding occurred.

Affected LifelineThe Whangarei-Kaeo highway (State Highways 1 and 10) and the Whangarei-Kaikohe highway (State Highways 1 and 12) were flooded on the 9th.

ImpactThousands of hectares of farmland were flooded.

Stock DamageHundreds of stock were drowned.

FloodingFlooding at Awanui River

Peak River LevelThe Awanui River at the School Cut reached a gauge height of 8.108 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Awanui River at the School Cut had a peak discharge of 226 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 225 km^2.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Bay of Islands

DamageThree pleasure launches and one barge were thrown ashore and destroyed in the Bay of Islands.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Cape Reinga

Physical CharacteristicCape Reinga recorded gusts of up to 160 km/hr.

Physical CharacteristicCape Reinga recorded a mean wind speed of 90 knots (167 km/hr).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Dargaville

DamageA large garage housing a tractor, a truck and car disintegrated at the height of the storm.

FloodingFlooding at Hikurangi Swamp

AreaAbout 4800 hectares of the Hikurangi Swamp was under water.

Physical CharacteristicAbout 10 ft (3 m) of water covered the ground in places.

FloodingFlooding at Kaeo

Physical CharacteristicWater over the main road swept up nearly four feet (1.22 m) in half and hour on the evening of the 9th.

FloodingFlooding at Kaitaia

ImpactHomes in Kaitaia were surrounded by flood waters. Floodwaters caused sewers to overflow gully traps.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

CasualtiesA farmer was killed after being blown off a haystack in Kaitaia.

Peak Wind SpeedWinds were aroubd 25 knots (46 km/hr), gusting to 38 knots (70 km/hr) on the 9th.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Affected LifelineKaitaia was cut off by slips and flooded roads.

LandslideLandslide at Mangamuka Gorge

Affected LifelineState Highway 1 through Mangamuka Gorge was covered by flood waters in two places.

Affected LifelineMangamuka Gorge was blocked by 30 landslips.

FloodingFlooding at Manganui River

Peak River LevelThe Manganui River at the Permanent Station reached a gauge height of 6.614 m on the 11th.

Peak River FlowThe Manganui River at the Permanent Station had a peak discharge of 128 cumecs on the 11th, with a catchment area of 417 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Maropiu

Peak River LevelThe Kaihu River at Maropiu reached a gauge height of 5.365 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Kaihu River at Maropiu had a peak discharge of 382 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 163 km^2.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Marsden Point

CommentMarsden Point was battered by high winds on the 9th.

LandslideLandslide at Moerewa

Affected LifelineThere were three large subsidences on State Highway 1 near Moerewa.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Ninety Mile Beach

ImpactTwo busloads of tourists were left stranded on Ninety Mile Beach.

FloodingFlooding at Opahi

Peak River LevelOpahi Stream at the Pond reached a gauge height of 2.17 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowOpahi Stream at the Pond had a peak discharge of 30.3 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 10.4 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Rangiahua

Affected LifelineThe highway was blocked at Rangiahua where floodwaters crossed the road and made it impassable.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Russell

Physical CharacteristicRussell recorded nearly 3 in (7.62 cm) of rain over night on the 10th.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

DamageAt least three pleasure launches and a large barge were washed ashore by heavy seas.

FloodingFlooding at Selwyn Flat

Peak River LevelThe Selwyn Swamp at Big Flat Road reached a gauge height of 0.863 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Selwyn Swamp at Big Flat Road had a peak discharge of 1.132 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 2.1 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Te Kao

ImpactHouses were inundated at Te Kao.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Whangarei

Affected LifelineThe southern and higher parts of Whangarei were without water on the 10th due to a break in the Maunu pipeline.

Auckland

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Auckland

CommentAuckland was drenched by a heavy downpour on the 9th.

FloodingFlooding

Affected LifelineStreets and gutters were flooded and several road accidents occurred.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Property DamageHigh winds tore the roofs off many Auckland houses and uprooted trees.

Affected LifelinePower lines were brought down by the storm.

LandslideLandslide

Affected LifelineRoads were blocked by slips on the 10th.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

Damage CostThe 195-tonne 'pirate' radio ship 'Tiri II', which was anchored near Great Brrier Island, was driven ashore by the storm and her hull was badly damaged. She also lost her $4000 ($60,300 2008 dollars), 160 ft transmitting antenna.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Auckland city

Physical CharacteristicAuckland recorded 1.83 in (4.65 cm) of rain in 24 hours to 6pm on the 10th.

LandslideLandslide

DamageTons of clay smashed down on to the site of the new public library in Wellesley Street, leaving a building, the Leighton Driving School, on the brink of a 30-foot precipice.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Peak Wind SpeedGusts of 65 mph (105 km/hr) were recorded on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Little Barrier Island

Peak Wind SpeedThere were gusts of up to 45 knots (83 km/hr) at Little Barrier at 11am on the 9th.

FloodingFlooding at Makarau River

Peak River LevelThe Makarau River at Dosing Strip reached a gauge height of 4.279 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Makarau River at Dosing Strip had a peak discharge of 72.2 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 48.4 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Waiwhiu Stream

Peak River LevelWaiwhiu Stream at Dome Shadow reached a gauge height of 1.972 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowWaiwhiu Stream at Dome Shadow had a peak discharge of 21.7 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 8.03 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Waikato

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Waikato

Affected LifelineRoads in the Waikato were blocked by flood waters and slips.

Damage CostThe Ohinemuri County suffered damage totalling $10,000 ($151,000 2008 dollars), for repairs to scours, remetalling roads and clearing slips.

Damage CostThe Thames County suffered damage totalling nearly $13,000 ($196,000 2008 dollars), of which 75% was road damage.

Affected LifelineTelecommunications with almost all towns on the Coromandel Peninsula were disrupted.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

CommentThe Waitekauri-Shaftesbury area received the heaviest rainfalls in the Waikato.

FloodingFlooding

CommentFlows in the Kauaeranga, Kirikiri, Puriri, Hikutaia and Komata Rivers were close to the highest known over the last 10 years.

Affected LifelineSome roads were closed by flood waters from the Waihou River and hill streams.

Physical CharacteristicThe Waihou River rose to a level in the southern area of roughly 0.3 m lower than in 1966.

Affected LifelineState Highway 2 between Paeroa and Waihi was closed by flood waters, and the was some undermining of the roadway.

LandslideLandslide

CommentConsiderable slipping occurred on relatively easy slopes.

Affected LifelineNine roads were closed by slips. State Highway 25A, the Kopu-Hikuai Highway, was closed due to slips. The Tapu-Coromandel road was closed by slips, with a large slip on the eastern side of Tapu Hill.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Coromandel

Damage CostThe estimated cost of the damage to county roads in the Coromandel County was $16,500 ($248,700 2008 dollars).

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Elstow

Physical CharacteristicElstow recorded 60.0 mm (6.0 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding at Hikuai

Affected LifelineHikuai Settlement Road by the Tairua River was closed.

FloodingFlooding at Hikutaia

Affected LifelineHuia Valley Road by the Hikutaia River was closed.

ImpactSurface flooding occurred for some days in the Komata North-Hikutaia-Wainui area.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kaihere

Physical CharacteristicKaihere recorded 73.7 mm (7.4 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kakahu Stream

Physical CharacteristicKakahu Downs recorded 93.7 mm (9.4 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding at Karangahake

Affected LifelineState Highway 2 through the Karangahake Gorge was closed.

Peak River LevelThe Ohinemuri River at Karangahake reached a gauge height of 6.096 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Ohinemuri River at Karangahape had a peak flow of 651 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 287 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kauaeranga

Physical CharacteristicKauaeranga recorded 179.4 mm (17.9 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding

Affected LifelineKauaeranga Valley Road and Kauaeranga South Road by the Kauaeranga River were closed.

Peak River LevelThe Kauaeranga River at Smiths reached a gauge height of 5.547 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Kauaranga River at Smiths had a peak dicharge of 775 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 122 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kauaeranga River

Physical CharacteristicRainfall in the upper reaches of the Kauaeranga River was 6.47 in (16.43 cm) in 24 hours.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Kauaeranga River at the Gauging Station reached a gauge height of 5.6 m at 3:15am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kerepehi

Physical CharacteristicKerepehi recorded 50.8 mm (5.1 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Kiwitahi

Physical CharacteristicKiwitahi recorded 46.5 mm (4.7 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding at Kopu

ImpactSurface flooding occurred for some days in the Warahoe and Kopu areas.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Mamaku

Physical CharacteristicMamaku recorded 134.5 mm (13.5 cm) of rain.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Marokopa

Stock Damage600 sheep died from exposure after shearing.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Matamata

Physical CharacteristicMatamata recorded 73.3 mm (7.3 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Morrinsville

Physical CharacteristicMorrinsville recorded 47.0 mm (4.7 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Mt Te Aroha

Physical CharacteristicTe Aroha Mountain recorded 137.0 mm (13.7 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Ngatea

Physical CharacteristicNgatea recorded 44.5 mm (4.5 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Okauia

Physical CharacteristicOkauia recorded 60.8 mm (6.1 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Waihou River at Okauia Springs reached a gauge height of 5.2 m at 11:50am on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihou River at Okauia Springs had an estimated flow of 90 cumecs at 11:50am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding at Omahu

ImpactSurface flooding occurred for some days in the Omahu area.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Paeroa

Physical CharacteristicPaeroa recorded 96.2 mm (9.6 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding

ImpactSurface flooding occurred for some days in the Opukeko-Hubbard Roads area.

Peak River LevelThe Waihou River at Puke (bridge) reached a gauge height of 7.3 m at 10am on the 10th.

Peak River LevelThe Ohinemuri River at Paeroa reached a gauge height of 8.4 m at 5:30am on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Ohinemuri River at Paeroa had an estimaed flow of 540 cumecs at 5:30am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding at Puketui

Affected LifelinePuketui Road by the Tairua River was closed.

FloodingFlooding at Puriri

Affected LifelineState Highway 26 by Puriri Stream was closed. The Puriri-Neavesville Road by Puriri Stream was also closed.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Raglan

ImpactSeveral lanches and other small craft broke loss from their moorings in the harbour. Some were washed up on the beach.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Richmond Downs

Physical CharacteristicRichmond Downs recorded 40.9 mm (4.1 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Shaftesbury

Physical CharacteristicShaftesbury recorded 162.4 mm (16.2 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Waihou River at Shaftesbury reached a gauge height of 17.6 m at 10pm on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihou River at Shaftesbury had an estimated flow of 120 cumecs at 10pm on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding at Tahunaatara Stream

Peak River LevelTahunaatara Stream at Ohakuri Road reached a gauge height of 1.594 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowTahunaatara Stream at Ohakuri Road had a peak discharge of 35.5 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 210 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tairua

Physical CharacteristicTairua Forest recorded 104.9 mm (10.5 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Tauwhare

Physical CharacteristicTauwhare recorded 53.4 mm (5.3 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Te Aroha

Physical CharacteristicTe Aroha recorded 4.93 in (12.52 cm) of rain in 24 hours ending 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Waihou River at Te Aroha Bridge reached a gauge height of 8.062 m on the 11th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihou River at Te Aroha Bridge had a peak discharge of 156 cumecs on the 11th, with a catchment area of 1121 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Te Puru

Physical CharacteristicPuru recorded 88.9 mm (8.9 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Thames

Physical CharacteristicThames recorded 3.10 in (7.87 cm) of rain in 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

Affected LifelineState Highway 25 by the Kauaeranga River was closed.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Affected LifelineTelephone toll services out of Thames on the 10th, were restricted to single lines to Paeroa and Ngatea. No lines were working to Auckland, Hamilton, Coromandel and Whitianga.

FloodingFlooding at Tirohia

ImpactSurface flooding occurred for some days in the Tirohia-Rotokohu area.

Peak River LevelThe Waihou River at Tirohia reached a gauge height of 3.444 m on the 12th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihou River at Tirohia had a peak discharge of 127 cumecs on the 12th, with a catchment area of 1217 km^2.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Totara

Affected LifelineTrees and chimneys were blown down in Totara, causing damage to power and telephone lines.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Waihi

Property DamageThe roofs of several houses were badly damaged. Shop verandahs in the town were also blown down.

Affected LifelinePower poles and wires were reported to be down. A power cut plunged the town into almost total darkness for nearly the entire night.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

Physical CharacteristicWaihi recorded 104.1 mm (10.4 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding

Affected LifelineFrankton Road was closed due to flood waters.

FloodingFlooding at Waimakariri Stream

Peak River LevelWaimakariri Stream at Donovans Bridge reached a gauge height of 0.9 m on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding at Waiomou Stream

Peak River LevelWaiomou Stream at Leonards bridge reached a gauge height of 1.5 m at 7:30am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Wairakau

Physical CharacteristicWairakau recorded 137.1 mm (13.7 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding at Waitawheta

Affected LifelineDeans Road was closed due to flood waters.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Waiteariki Stream

Physical CharacteristicWaiti-Ariki Waterworks recorded 127.0 mm (12.7 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Waitekauri

Physical CharacteristicWaitekauri recorded 310.7 mm (31.1 cm) of rain.

FloodingFlooding at Whangamata

Affected LifelineWentworth Valley Road by the Wentworth River was closed.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Whangapoua

Physical CharacteristicWhangapoua recorded 116.8 mm (11.7 cm) of rain.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Whiritoa

Physical CharacteristicWhiritoa Hill recorded 98.2 mm (9.8 cm) of rain.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Whitianga

DamageHigh seas in the Whitianga harbour left a trail of damage. Two fishing boats were washed ashore and several dinghies were also missing. Heavy seas also threw large deposits of shell on the shoreward side of Buffalo Beach Road.

Bay of Plenty

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Bay of Plenty

DamageWestern Boundary forest stands suffered wind damage.

Affected LifelineRoads in the Rotorua, Whakatane and Taupo areas were scattered with large branches and falling trees had partly blocked some.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelMangarewa Stream at Sounders Farm reached a gauge height of 6.44 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowMangarewa Stream at Sounders Farm had a peak discharge of 456 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 179 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

DamagePleasure craft at Mount Maunganui, Katikati and Bowentown were damaged.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Katikati

Property DamageAt Katikati, the roof was torn off classrooms at a school and several houses at the northern end of town lost sections of their roofs. Barns and milking sheds also lost roofs. At least one cowshed was extensively damaged.

DamageLarge trees were torn out of the ground.

Affected LifelineTelephone and power services were severely disrupted throughout the Katikati area.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kawerau

DamageThe roof of the new St John Ambulance hall was blown off.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Maketu

Property DamageThree houses were on the point of losing their roofs. At least one house moved off its foundations.

FloodingFlooding

ImpactSeveral houses near the lagoon were flooded and the occupants had to leave.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

DamageSeveral dinghies were smashed by the force of the wind and waves.

Area180 acres (73 ha) were under water after high tides and strong winds flooded farmland.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Maraenui Marae

Property DamageMaraenui school was demolished.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Opotiki

Property DamageAn Opotiki church was damaged.

DamageA 40 ft fishing boat was swept from its mooring, lifted across a road and dumped in a paddock.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Stock DamageThree cows were killed when a tree fel on them and a large number of sheep were drowned in sea water.

FloodingFlooding at Rotorua

Peak River LevelUtuhina Stream at the State Highway Bridge reached a gauge height of 1.859 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowUtuhina Stream at the State Highway Bridge had a peak discharge of 11.4 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 59.6 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Taneatua

Affected LifelineRail services on the Taneatua line were cut.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tauranga

Physical CharacteristicThe cyclone approached Tauranga at more than 30 knots (56 km/hr) on the 9th.

Property DamageThe winds damaged house roofs in Tauranga and farm buildings collapsed. The roof of a house in Otumoetai was completely blown off.

Physical CharacteristicWinds in the Tauranga area gusted to more than 80 knots (148 km/hr).

Physical CharacteristicAt Tauranga Airport the winds gusted to 52 knots (96 km/hr).

Affected LifelineThe power supply to Tauranga was completely cut for almost half an hour on the 9th after a tree branch blew across the 50,000 volt line bringing power from the national grid.

Affected LifelineThere were tele-communication failures in the Tauranga area.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

ImpactSeas whipped inland across pastures and wreaked havoc on the ocean beach foreshore.

DamageBoats were blown from their moorings and several sunk.

Physical CharacteristicTauranga experienced a storm surge of 0.9 m.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Physical CharacteristicThe air pressure dropped down to 970 millibars (97.0 hPa) - a record low.

FloodingFlooding

ImpactHeavy rain flooded some business premises.

Affected LifelineThere was a washout on the Tauranga-Waihi Road.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Te Kaha

Property DamageTe Kaha School was demolished.

FloodingFlooding at Te Matai

Peak River LevelThe Kaituna River at Te Matai reached a gauge height of 2.685 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Kaituna River at Te Matai had a peak discharge of 117 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 948 km^2.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Te Puke

Property DamageBarns and milking sheds in Te Puke lost roofs.

ImpactFarmers were unable to do morning milking due to the loss of electricity.

Affected Lifeline1000 phones were out in Te Puke.

FloodingFlooding at Waiari Stream

Peak River LevelWaiari Stream at Muttons reached a gauge height of 3.536 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowWaiari Stream at Muttons had a peak discharge of 55.2 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 69.9 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Waihi Beach

InjuriesA woman was injured when waves washed through a beach cottage at Waihi.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Waiotahi

AreaAt Waiotahi, 200 hectares (2 km^2) of coastal farmland was under saltwater.

Stock DamageFarm animals drowned.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Whakatane

DamageTwo fishing boats were wrecked at the wharf.

ImpactIn the rural area, huge seas were driven inland, flooding many hectares of coastal farmland.

Stock DamageHundreds of cattle and sheep were drowned.

Affected LifelineHuge waves smashed a concrete retaining wall and washed logs across the road.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Property DamageSome homes in Whakatane lost their roofs, and the childrens ward at the hospital had half its roof ripped away.

EvacueesTen patients from the hospital were evacuated.

Property DamageMany farm buildings were flattened.

Peak Wind SpeedWhakatane Aerodrome recorded a peak wind gust of 79 knots (146 km/hr) on the 10th, at 080 degrees true.

Gisborne

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Gisborne

Physical CharacteristicWinds of 75 knots (139 km/hr) were recorded in Gisborne on the morning of the 10th. It was the fiercest gale in living memory.

Property DamageA school roof was lost.

Crop DamageOrchards were damaged.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Gisborne city

EvacueesThe hospital was damaged, and patients had to be hurriedly moved from it. 21 patients were evacuated from the isolation ward at Cook Hospital. Part of the roof of ward eight was ripped off and flung several hundred yards away.

Peak Wind SpeedGisborne Aerodrome recorded a peak wind gust of 76 knots (141 km/hr) on the 10th, at 050 degrees true.

DamageThe gale tore the roofs off homes, disrupted power supplies and telephone communications. It flattened poultry farm buildings, ripped out countless trees, blocked many roads, and shattered windows in some homes.

Hawke's Bay

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hawke's Bay

Property DamageIn Hawke's Bay, houses lost their roofs and fences and farm buildings were flattened.

Crop DamageThousands of bushels of fruit were torn from trees.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Affected LifelineRoads and railway lines were blocked by slips and fallen trees.

FloodingFlooding

EvacueesA number of families were evacuated due to flooding.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hastings

Crop DamageOrchards were damaged in Hastings. More than a quarter of a million bushels of apples, the bulk of the Granny Smith variety, were shaken from trees overnight on the 9th in the Hastings district. Granny Smith apples were estimated to crop up to half a million cases this season and a preliminary survey showed that between a quarter and a half of the crop was lost.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Mahia Beach

Property DamageA cottage at Mahia beach was blown to pieces.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Napier

Property DamageA Napier house was torn in two by the wind, several others lost roofs, and many houses along Marine Parade had windows blown in.

Taranaki

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Taranaki

Physical CharacteristicNorth Taranaki received nearly 3 in (7.62 cm) of rain overnight on the 9th to the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

CommentNo flooding was reported.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Physical CharacteristicWesterly winds gusted up to 43 mph (69 km/hr).

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

CommentThe centre of the tropical storm bypassed the Taranaki region.

Manawatu-Wanganui

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Manawatu-Wanganui

CauseThe backlash of the tropical depression that swept the East Coast.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

CommentA southerly gale blew in the Wanganui-Turakina-Marton area for three hours on the 10th.

DamagePlantations in the Manawatu, Rangitikei and Wanganui districts were stripped.

Affected LifelineState Highway 4 between Wanganui and Raetihi was blocked for about two hours on the 10th by fallen trees.

InjuriesThree men were taken to hospital for treatment after they were blown over by strong gusts.

Peak Wind SpeedThe winds peaked at 90 mph (145 km/hr) on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

CommentThe high winds were accompanied by torrential rain.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Levin

InjuriesThree people were injured when a car was whipped off the highway at Levin.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Ohakea

Peak Wind SpeedOhakea recorded a peak wind gust of 84 knots (156 km/hr) on the 10th, at 270 degrees true.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Okoia

ImpactOkoia School closed on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Opiki

DamageAt Opiki, lines of Macrocarpa trees were flattened.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Upokongaro

ImpactUpokongaro School closed on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Wanganui

Peak Wind SpeedWanganui Aerodrome recorded a peak wind gust of 83 knots (154 km/hr) on the 10th, at 210 degrees true.

Property DamageTwo homes in Koromiko Road lost portions of their roofs and the Castlecliff town hall lost some roofing iron. Two huge pine trees fell across a house. Windows were broken and tv aerials twisted.

ImpactA motorist was trapped beneath a fallen tree in Ridgeway Street.

Property DamageAt Wanganui Airport, about half of the hanger roof was stripped by the wind and windows were smashed at the Terminal. Huts and other small buildings at the airport were shattered by wind. A Cessna 185 suffered severe damage, damage was done to a DC3 rudder and elevator, and an open hanger sheltering an Auster collapsed, wrecking the aircraft.

Affected LifelineWanganui Airport was closed until 1.30pm on the 10th.

Property DamageAt Wanganui Racecourse, the main grandstand lost a third of its roof. Two gables disappeared in a gust, the Leger Street stand lost a wall, and roofing from stables was flung 50 yards (45 m) across Purnell Street. An iron fence along 200 yards (180 m) of Purnell Street was a complete write off.

Damage CostThe damage to Wanganui Racecourse was estimated at $20,000 ($301,000 2008 dollars).

Affected LifelineHighways around the city were affected by fallen trees.

Affected LifelineToll and telegraph communications to and from the city were cut for about ten-and-a-half hours.

Affected LifelinePowerlines were cut by fallen trees and roofing iron.

Crop DamageOrchards were stripped of apples, wind breaks were uprooted, and fruit trees were smashed.

Damage CostAbout $1000 ($15,000 2008 dollars) of damage was done to Rasmussen Ltd's Upper Aramoho nursery when two shelter belts were uprooted.

DamageA pine plantation lost several thousand dollars when about 300 trees were destroyed in the storm.

CommentThe gales in Wanganui were the severest in the city's memory.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Property DamageAt the Art Gallery, 12 skylights were smashed, causing flooding on the floor. Window glazing in Memorial Hall gave way in the high winds, causing rain to get inside.

ImpactCastlecliff School closed on the 10th. Wanganui Boys College closed at lunchtime.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

DamageThe Crematorium was leaking.

Physical CharacteristicWanganui recorded 2.20 in (5.6 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 6pm on the 10th.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Whangaehu

ImpactWhangaehu School closed on the 10th.

Wellington

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Wellington

CauseEx-tropical Cyclone Giselle was intensified over Wellington on the morning of the 10th, when it met a bad southerly gale moving up from the West Coast as a front of cold air from a depression south of New Zealand.

ImpactNine schools in the area closed on the 10th.

Insurance Claim$162.9 million (2002 dollars) of insurance claims were made in the aftermath of the Wahine storm ($194,900,000 2008 dollars).

Insurance Claim3657 insurance claims were made for storm damage in the Wellington region.

Insurance PaymentLoss of the "Wahine" Payouts totalled $10,000,000 ($150,700,000 2008 dollars).

Insurance PaymentThe Earthquake and War Damage Commision (EWDC) payouts totalled $625,170 ($9,422,200 2008 dollars), for the 72% of claims paid out.

Damage CostThe mean payment from the EWDC was $237 ($3570 2008 dollars).

Damage CostThe largest single payment from the EWDC was $441,128 ($6,648,400 2008 dollars) for a claim in the Rongotai industrial area.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

CommentWellington experienced full hurricane force winds for several hours on the 10th.

CommentThe winds were the strongest yet to be recorded in any builtup area in New Zealand.

DamageIn the Wairarapa, trees and sign posts were blown down on the 10th.

Affected LifelinePower and telephone lines were blown down.

Affected LifelineRoad and rail travel was disrupted and all city council trolley buses were off the streets for most of the day. Many roads in Wellington city suburbs were impassable because of downed trees and branches, flooding, and fallen power and trolley bus lines.

ImpactMany schools decided to close on the the morning of the 10th but pupils were not allowed to walk or cycle home due to the danger of flying debris.

CommentThe winds were from the southsouth-west direction.

CasualtiesA 7-year-old girl was killed on the 10th when roofing iron from a neighbouring house was blown through a bedroom window, as she and her sister lay in their beds. The children were at Bedford Street, Northland, a suburb of Wellington.

InjuriesThe girl's 9-year-old sister received fractures to her skull.

CasualtiesAn elderly woman died in Wellington on the 10th when her small home was enveloped by wind-whipped flames.

CasualtiesAn elderly man died on the way to hospital after being bowled over by the wind.

InjuriesMore than 80 people were treated at hospital for various injuries. Most were victims of flying debris.

DamageA great deal of damage was done to places exposed to the south.

Property DamageDamage to 2000 state houses was placed at $170,000 ($2,560,000 2008 dollars).

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Berhampore

DamageAthletic Park was extensively damaged. Most of the main stand roof was blown away and one end of the stand suffered badly.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Carterton

InjuriesA farmer was taken to hospital after being struck by a flying tree branch in Carterton.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Cook Strait

CommentThe combined force of the two cyclones stirred up incredible winds in Cook Strait.

Peak Wind SpeedHurricane force winds reached 275 km/hr.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal at Eastbourne

Affected LifelineEastbourne was cut off from the city of Wellington as heavy seas washed over Marine Drive.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Gracefield

Peak Wind SpeedGracefield recorded a peak gust of 98 knots (181 km/hr) on the 10th, at 210 degrees true.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hawkins Hill

Peak Wind SpeedHawkins Hill recorded gusts of up to 235 km/hr on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Hutt River

CommentThe winds in the Hutt Valley were less severe.

Property DamageIn the Hutt Valley factory and house roofing was blown off. Felt and Textiles (NZ) Ltd lost a section of its roofing and Sunbeam (NZ) Ltd lost a shelter cover. Numerous houses in various parts of the Hutt Valley suffered damaged roofs.

Affected LifelineThe majority of homes in the Hutt Valley were without power on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Johnsonville

InjuriesTwo men were severely injured in separate accidents in Johnsonville, in which sheds collapsed in the wind on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kelburn

Peak Wind SpeedKelburn (elevation 125 m) recorded a peak gust of 107 knots (198 km/hr) on the 10th, at 210 degrees true.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Kingston

Property DamageKingston received the worst property damage from the storm. 98 houses lost parts of their roofs. Six or more houses in Kingston Heights were vitually demolished, three being torn completely apart and flattened, and 20 others were de-roofed. Dozens of houses were left with shattered windows, and light fixtures and other unfixed items were also shattered. The list of damaged properties was approaching 200.

EvacueesEfforts to evacuate the area were made later in morning on the 10th. About 56 people were evacuated from the area.

DamageRoofing iron and slates littered every street, along with torn wires, fencing, letter boxes, tree branches, rubbish bins and tar paper.

ImpactThree ambulances and a truck were blown onto their sides when they tried to go into the area.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

Property DamageAfter roofs were ripped off, rain poured into houses, ruining furnishings and carpets.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Lower Hutt

Affected LifelineThe Lower Hutt area lost its electricity supply for an hour on the morning of the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Lyall Bay

DamageAn ambulance, two trucks and several cars were blown onto the beach at Lyall Bay. The force of the wind caused paint to be sandblasted off several cars and some had their windscreens shattered.

FloodingFlooding at Martinborough

Peak River LevelThe Ruamahanga River at Waihenga (bridge) reached a gauge height of 4.084 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Ruamahanga River at Waihenga (bridge) had a peak discharge of 843 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 2341 km^2.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Oteranga Bay

Peak Wind SpeedNear Oteranga Bay gusts of up to 267 km/hr were recorded on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicOteranga Bay anemometer (173 m above sea level) recorded wind speeds of 98 kts (181 km/hr).

Peak Wind SpeedOteranga Bay (elevation 174 m) recorded a peak gust of 131 knots (243 km/hr) on the 10th, at 220 degrees true.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Paraparaumu

Peak Wind SpeedParaparaumu Aerodrome recorded a peak gust of 93 knots (172 km/hr) on the 10th, at 210 degrees true.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Petone

Affected Lifeline72 cars were sitting on the side of the road between Petone and Kaiwharawhara, some of the which had been abandoned.

Property DamageGeneral Motors at Petone lost its roof.

Affected LifelineParts of Petone industrial areas were without power all morning on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Seatoun

Property DamageAt Seatoun, more than 20 cars and vans were blown into a heap by the wind. The roof of one house was peeled off and hurled through a neighbour's window.

Damage CostThe damage in Seatoun amounted to $40,000 ($603,000 2008 dollars).

FloodingFlooding at Upper Hutt

ImpactSevere flooding occurred in Upper Hutt.

Declared EmergencyA State of Civil Defence Emergency was declared.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Property DamageFive shop verandahs between Royal Street and Pine Avenue were dropped.

Affected LifelineThe Hutt railway was out of action and the Western Hutt Road was usable only in emergencies. Many cars were abandoned on the road.

LandslideLandslide at Wainuiomata

Affected LifelineSlips isolated 12,000 Wainuiomata residents.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Wainui-o-mata River at Morton Dam reached a gauge height of 1.006 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Wainui-o-mata River at Morton Dam had a peak discharge of 79.24 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 33.4 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Wellington City

Physical CharacteristicWellington recorded 2.9 in (7.37 cm) of rain in 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Property DamageThe winds blew out a number of windows in the Parliament buildings, uprooted large trees in the grounds and blew down fences.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Wellington Harbour

Physical CharacteristicWellington Harbour recorded winds of 120-160 km/hr on the 10th.

Maritime / CoastalMaritime / Coastal

DamageThe 9000-ton Interisland steamer "Wahine" foundered in the harbour entrance, rolling over and hitting the bottom off Seatoun on the 10th. With severe underwater damage, the Wahine drifted helplessly for hours before the end.

Casualties51 lives were lost from the Wahine.

ImpactHuge seas boiling down the capital's harbour drove several yachts ashore.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Wellington International Airport

Peak Wind SpeedWellington Aerodrome recorded a peak gust of 101 knots (187 km/hr) on the 10th, at 210 degrees true.

Physical CharacteristicWellington Airport recorded sustained (mean) wind speeds of 70 kts (130 km/hr).

Marlborough

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Marlborough

CommentExtremely heavy rain fell in the western portion of the Wairau Catchment, in a line through the Goulter, Branch and Leatham Catchments.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River FlowThe Wairau River had a peak flow of 3,000 cumecs.

FloodingFlooding at Bartletts Creek

Peak River LevelBartletts Creek at North Bank Bridge reached a gauge height of 119.07 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowBartletts Creek at North Bank Bridge had a peak discharge of 228 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 73.6 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Benhopai Dam

Physical CharacteristicBenhopai Dam recorded 17.0 mm (1.7 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallBenhopai Dam recorded 61.3 mm (6.1 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicBenhopai Dam recorded 78.2 mm (7.8 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Blenheim

Physical CharacteristicBlenheim recorded 4.3 mm (0.4 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallBlenheim recorded 46.9 mm (4.7 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicBlenheim recorded 51.3 mm (5.1 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

Affected LifelineThe Blenheim-West Coast highway was cut when the Branch River washed away two and a half chains (30 m) of bridge.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at The Branch station

Physical CharacteristicThe Branch recorded an average rainfall intensity of 8.1 mm (0.8 cm) per hour on the 9th.

Physical CharacteristicThe Branch recorded 92.7 mm (9.3 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallThe Branch recorded 133.5 mm (13.4 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicThe Branch recorded 226.1 mm (22.6 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Branch River at the Recorder reached a gauge height of 6.949 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Branch River at the Recorder had a peak discharge of 1217 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 580 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Coatbridge station

CommentStopbanks on the Wairau River from Langley Dale to Coatbridge were overtopped.

FloodingFlooding at Craiglochart station

Peak River LevelThe Waihopai River at Craiglochart reached a gauge height of 163.861 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihopai River at Craiglocharthad a peak discharge of 444 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 764 km^2.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Deep Creek

Physical CharacteristicDeep Creek recorded 23.4 mm (2.3 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallDeep Creek recorded 174.2 mm (17.4 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicDeep Creek recorded 187.6 mm (18.8 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Fabians Creek

Physical CharacteristicFabians Valley recorded 58.4 mm (5.8 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallFabians Valley recorded 99.1 mm (9.9 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicFabians Valley recorded 157.4 mm (15.7 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Lake Grassmere

Peak Wind SpeedLake Grassmere recorded a peak gust of 83 knots (154 km/hr) on the 10th, at 180 degrees true.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Lake Rotoiti

Physical CharacteristicLake Rotoiti recorded 17.8 mm (1.8 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallLake Rotoiti recorded 90.4 mm (9.0 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicLake Rotoiti recorded 107.0 mm (10.7 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Leatham station

Physical CharacteristicLeatham recorded 53.3 mm (5.3 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th, although the gauge overflowed.

Peak RainfallLeatham recorded 252.7 mm (25.3 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th, although the gauge overflowed.

Physical CharacteristicLeatham recorded 306.0 mm (30.6 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Onamalutu River

Physical CharacteristicOnamalutu recorded 38.1 mm (3.8 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallOnamalutu recorded 109.2 mm (10.9 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicOnamalutu recorded 147.3 mm (14.7 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding at Pine Valley Stream

Peak River LevelPine Valley Stream at the Slope Area Reach reached a gauge height of 176.507 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowPine Valley Stream at the Slope Area Reach had a peak discharge of 93.4 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 27.7 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Pukaka Drain

Peak River LevelThe Wairau River at the Pukaka Floodgates reached a gauge height of 5.09 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Wairau River at the Pukaka Floodgates had a peak discharge of 614 cumecs on the 10th. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Renwick

Affected LifelineWater flowed through the old Conders Groyne and flowed over the state highway at the County Crusher.

FloodingFlooding at Saltwater Stream

DamageThe Wairau River works from Waihopai to Saltwater Creek suffered the most serious damage, with 60 m badly damaged or destroyed and 140 m requiring topping up.

FloodingFlooding at Spring Creek

DamageWillow protection along the Wairau River bank adjacent to Spring Creek was destroyed for 20 m.

FloodingFlooding at Timms Creek

Peak River LevelTimms Creek at the Slope Area Reach reached a gauge height of 243.688 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowTimms Creek at the Slope Area Reach had a peak discharge of 137 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 34.2 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Top Valley Stream

Peak River LevelTop Valley Stream at the Slope Area Reach reached a gauge height of 304.434 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowTop Valley Stream at the Slope Area Reach had a peak discharge of 187 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 78 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Tuamarina

Peak River LevelThe Wairau River at Tuamarina reached a gauge height of 6.501 m on the 10th.

Peak River FlowThe Wairau River at Tuamarinahad a peak discharge of 2972 cumecs on the 10th, with a catchment area of 3432 km^2.

DamageFrom Ferry Bridge downstream, some bank slumping occurred on the Wairau River. Major damage was done on Peninsular Island, where some 200 m of heavy willow bank protection needed to be replaced with rock. Damage to the river works between Tuamarina and Waihopai was comparatively light.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Wairau Valley

Physical CharacteristicWairau Valley recorded 29.9 mm (3.0 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallWairau Valley recorded 72.1 mm (7.2 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicWairau Valley recorded 102.1 mm (10.2 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Wye River

Physical CharacteristicWye (Charlies Rest) recorded 44.2 mm (4.4 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Peak RainfallWye (Charlies Rest) recorded 95.0 mm (9.5 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 10th.

Physical CharacteristicWye (Charlies Rest) recorded 139.2 mm (13.9 cm) of rain in the 48 hours to 9am on the 10th.

FloodingFlooding

Peak River LevelThe Wye River at Thomson Gorge reached a gauge height of 387.148 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Wye River at Thomson Gorge had a peak discharge of 58 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 43.5 km^2.

Tasman-Nelson

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Tasman-Nelson

DamageIn the Nelson region, 20 million feet (6.1 million metres) of timber was recovered from damaged pockets spread over 5000 acres. The operation took three years to complete.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Golden Bay

Affected LifelineFloodwaters swept over several roads in Golden Bay on the morning of the 9th after a night of heavy rain and gale force winds.

FloodingFlooding at Riwaka River South Branch

Peak River LevelThe Riwaka South Branch at Mosses Bush reached a gauge height of 1.768 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowThe Riwaka South Branch at Mosses Bush had a peak discharge of 64.5 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 48.7 km^2.

West Coast

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at West Coast

Affected LifelineThe rail link via the Otira tunnel was closed. Four trains were stranded on the coast.

Affected LifelineThe worst highway damage was between Greymouth and Westport. Several spans of the Big Totara Bridge were washed away and many slips blocked the road.

FloodingFlooding

Stock DamageHundreds of sheep drowned in the Mawheraiti-Waimunga areas in what was described as the worst floods in living memory.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Greymouth

Physical CharacteristicGreymouth recorded 4.73 in (12.0 cm) of rain in the 24 hours to 9am on the 9th.

Physical CharacteristicGreymouth recorded over 2 in (5.1 cm) of rain in the hour from 8am-9am on the 9th.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Property DamageThe damage to Greymouth properties was estimated at thousands of dollars.

FloodingFlooding

EvacueesGreymouth was awash on the 9th, following a cloudburst which caused the evacuation of some houses.

Peak River LevelSawyers Creek at High Street Bridge reached a gauge height of 2.972 m on the 9th.

Peak River FlowSawyers Creek at High Street Bridge had a peak discharge of 72.2 cumecs on the 9th, with a catchment area of 16.6 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

ImpactFour schools were closed on the 9th because of surface flooding.

LandslideLandslide

ImpactThe rain brought down many slips.

Canterbury

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Canterbury

Stock DamageThousands of sheep drowned or died of exposure. In North Canterbury several hundred newly-shorn sheep died from exposure.

Property DamageHundreds of homes were damaged by flooding, wind and landslides.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

CommentCanterbury experienced a south-westerly gale on the 10th.

Property DamageGlasshouses were destroyed.

Crop DamageOrchards were stripped.

DamageSignificant damage was done to forests in Canterbury. 500 hectares of forest was destroyed. 1000 ha of the Selwyn Plantation Board and Eyrewell Forests were damaged.

Peak Wind SpeedCanterbury recorded a maximum wind speed of 130 km/hr

Heavy RainHeavy Rain

CommentRain was very heavy south of Christchurch.

FloodingFlooding

Crop DamageMarket gardens were flooded.

ImpactTwo cars were swept off a highway into a flooded paddock and the occupants had to be pulled to safety.

Peak River LevelReynolds Stream at Brankins Bridge reached a gauge height of 1.329 m on the 11th.

Peak River FlowReynolds Stream at Brankins Bridge had a peak discharge of 10.5 cumecs on the 11th, with a catchment area of 4.35 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

CommentAlthough the cyclone veered seawards, extensive flooding occurred on rivers south of the Waitaki.

Snow / IceSnow / Ice

CommentSnow started falling at Lewis Pass, Porters Pass and Craigieburn after a severe drop in temperature in inland Canterbury.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Ashley Forest

DamageLarge areas of the Ashley State Forest were badly damaged.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust at Banks Peninsula

CommentVery high winds battered Banks Peninsula on the 14th.

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Christchurch

Physical CharacteristicChristchurch recorded 5 in (12.7 cm) of rain from the 10th to the morning of the 13th.

FloodingFlooding

ImpactHundreds of homes were flooded above floor level when the Heathcote and Avon Rivers breached their banks.

EvacueesAbout 130 families were evacuated along the Heathcote River and at Sumner and South Brighton.

Peak River LevelCashmere Stream at the Weir reached a gauge height of 1.167 m on the 12th.

Peak River FlowCashmere Stream at the Weir had a peak discharge of 4.75 cumecs on the 12th, with a catchment area of 2.18 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Peak River LevelHoon Hay Stream at the Weir reached a gauge height of 1.204 m on the 12th.

Peak River FlowHoon Hay Stream at the Weir had a peak discharge of 5.15 cumecs on the 12th, with a catchment area of 3.26 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

Peak River LevelDeep Creek at the Carlton Road Culvert reached a gauge height of 0.351 m on the 11th.

Peak River FlowDeep Creek at the Carlton Road Culvert had a peak discharge of 1.8 cumecs on the 11th, with a catchment area of 3.73 km^2.

ImpactExtensive urban flooding occurred in the Sumner area and much of suburban Christchurch on the 14th.

High Wind GustsHigh Wind / Gust

Peak Wind SpeedChristchurch recorded a gust of 82 mph (132 km/hr) just before 9am on the 11th.

Property DamageHouse roofs were torn off and windows blown in. In the Port Hills some houses were damaged almost beyond repair by the wind.

Crop DamageIn Horotane Valley Road 30 huge glasshouses and the tomatoes inside them were destoyed.

DamageHundreds of trees were uprooted. Shops and buses lost their roofs. Fences, garages and windows were smashed. Power poles were toppled.

CasualtiesA man was killed on the night of the 10th when a tree was blown down on him on his property.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard

Damage CostThe storm caused damage estimated at $500,000 ($7,535,700 2008 dollars).

Affected LifelineChristchurch Internation Airport was closed on the morning of the 11th and 600 passengers were affected.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Ellesmere

Stock DamageAt Ellesmere, 3000 sheep perished.

FloodingFlooding at Leeston

Stock DamageAt Leeston, 10,000 fowls were drowned.

FloodingFlooding at Little River

ImpactLittle River families had to be rescued when the settlement was flooded.

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Lyttelton

CommentThe storm was the worst in living memory at Lyttleton.

FloodingFlooding at Otemata River

Peak River LevelThe Otemata River at the Pumphouse reached a gauge height of 1.555 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowThe Otemata River at the Pumphouse had a peak discharge of 136 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 668 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Rockburn

Peak River LevelRocky Gully Stream at Rockburn reached a gauge height of 1.204 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowRocky Gully Stream at Rockburn had a peak discharge of 20.1 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 22.8 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Silverton station

Peak River LevelThe Orari River at Silverton reached a gauge height of 2.774 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowThe Orari River at Silverton had a peak discharge of 228 cumecs on the 13th, with a cachment area of 521 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Skipton Reserve

Peak River LevelThe Opuha River at Skipton reached a gauge height of 2.24 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowThe Opuha River at Skipton had a peak discharge of 113 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 484 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Whitecliffs

Peak River LevelThe Selwyn River at Whitecliffs reached a gauge height of 1.228 m on the 11th.

Peak River FlowThe Selwyn River at Whitecliffs had a peak discharge of 33.1 cumecs on the 11th, with a catchment area of 151 km^2.

Otago

Heavy RainHeavy Rain at Otago

CommentWidespread rain occurred on catchments still wet from the March storm. Only the very exposed areas on the coast between Oamaru and the Otago Peninsula recieved heavy rain.

Physical CharacteristicNearly 355 mm (35.5 cm) of rain fell between the 10th and 13th.

Peak RainfallThe highest daily rainfall figure was 155.2 mm (15.5 cm) of rain on the 11th.

FloodingFlooding

CommentWidespread flooding was experienced generally. There was widespread flooding in the Pomahaka River.

FloodingFlooding at Blue Mountains

DamageThere was very heavy damage and erosion to tributaries from the Blue Mountains.

FloodingFlooding at Conical Hill

Affected LifelineThere was a washout on the Tapanui branch railway line near Conical Hill.

FloodingFlooding at Crookston

Property DamageAt the top end of Crookston, Swift Stream flattened seven lengths of fence.

CommentThere was widespread flooding in the Crookston Burn and Swift Creek on the 13th.

LandslideLandslide at Dunedin

Property DamageLate on the night of the 15th, a slip occurred on Ivanhoe Road after heavy rain, spilling mud, gorse and broom on to nearly the whole width of the road below. Two houses on a high section were undermined and left a few feet from the edge of the slip, in danger of crashing on to Portobello Road.

Affected LifelineAt 11pm, the road was covered in mud for a width of 15-20 ft (4.6-6.1 m), and was only passable by small cars, which inched their way along the slip.

ImpactSlips came down on to three houses in Glen Road, Green Island. The subsidence occurred on Leckhampton Court.

Affected LifelineLeckhampton Court was closed to traffic.

FloodingFlooding at East Taieri

AreaMore than 14.6 ha of East Taieri was flooded, and a much larger area was subjected to temporary inundation.

FloodingFlooding at Heriot

Stock DamageLarge stock losses occurred on a Heriot farm.

Property DamageQuite severe damage was done in the Heriot township.

FloodingFlooding at Kelso

ImpactKelso was flooded on the 13th. By the morning of the 15th the flood waters had almost gone from the township, with only a few large lakes remaining.

Physical CharacteristicMost properties that were flooded had 1/4-1/2 in (0.6-1.3 cm) of silt left over the floors.

Property DamageQuite severe damage was done in the Kelso township. The damage to one store was estimated at hundreds of dollars.

Stock DamageStock losses were negligible.

FloodingFlooding at Kyeburn

Peak River LevelThe Kye Burn at M.H. Bridge, Kyeburn, reached a gauge height of 2.377 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowThe Kye Burn at M.H. Bridge, Kyeburn, had a peak discharge of 127 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 376 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Lovells Flat

Peak River LevelLovells Creek at Lovells Flat reached a gauge height of 1.676 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowLovells Creek at Lovells Flat had a peak discharge of 21.5 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 39.9 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Patearoa Power Station

Peak River LevelThe Taieri River at Patearoa-Paerau Bridge reached a gauge height of 2.057 m on the 15th.

Peak River FlowThe Taieri River at Patearoa-Paerau Bridge had a peak discharge of 60 cumecs on the 15th, with a catchment area of 738 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Pomahaka River

CommentThe return of the cyclonic storm on the 12th caused heavy flooding in the upper part of the Pomahaka catchment.

FloodingFlooding at Silver Stream

CommentThere was a record flood in the Silver Stream.

FloodingFlooding at Spylaw Burn

CommentThere was widespread flooding in the Spylaw area on the 13th.

FloodingFlooding at Tapanui

Property DamageIn the Tapanui area considerable damage was done to fences.

FloodingFlooding at Tokomairiro River

CommentIn the Tokomairiro Rating Area, extensive flooding occurred, particularly in the Milton Borough, between the 9th and the 16th.

FloodingFlooding at Wharemoa station

Peak River LevelThe Pomahaka River at Burkes Ford reached a gauge height of 5.425 m on the 14th.

Peak River FlowThe Pomahaka River at Burkes Ford hada peak discharge of 555 cumecs on the 14th, with a a catchment area of 1924 km^2.

Southland

FloodingFlooding at Southland

CommentCyclone Giselle caused the worst flooding in Southland since 1913.

CommentThe return of the cyclonic storm on the 12th caused heavy flooding in Southland.

Stock DamageStock losses were severe. Several thousand sheep were drowned in the lower Mataura Valley.

Physical CharacteristicThe water was 1 m deep in streets.

ImpactHundreds of people were left homeless.

Affected Lifeline20 bridges were washed out.

CommentThe most serious flooding occurred on the Mataura River and its tributaries due to a combination of melting snow and heavy rain on an already saturated catchment.

Declared EmergencyCivil Defence Emergency was declared in the Gore district, in Gore, Mataura and Wyndham. The state of emergency was still in force on the 15th.

Affected LifelineConsiderable damage was done to roads and bridges. On the Invercargill-Queenstown highway, a bridge was washed out on the afternoon of the 14th and on Highway 96 between Winton and Hedgehope there was a 40 ft gap where the road stopped and the Channel Bridge started.

Crop DamageConsiderable damage was done to crops. Swedes and turnips were washed out of the ground by rushing water on some paddocks. Stacks of hay and silage were spoiled.

Property DamageThousands of acres of Southland farmlands were under water. Extensive fence damage occurred and pastures were badly silted. Damage to fences along the Mataura River could cost thousands of dollars to repair, with some carried away completely.

ImpactThousands of sheep and cattle were marooned on high knobs of land. Most farmers were spared catastrophy by receiving adequate warning time.

Affected LifelineMany famers were cut off without communication.

EvacueesMCDEM stated that there were 1301 evacuees.

FloodingFlooding at Charlton

Stock Damage350 sheep were lost from a Charlton farm.

FloodingFlooding at Fairlight

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Fairlight reached a height of 2.64 m in April (normal height 0.90 m).

FloodingFlooding at Gore

Evacuees300 people were evacuated in Gore and Mataura.

CommentAt Gore, the level of the Mataura River was falling slowly from 1:30am on the 15th.

Stock Damage100 sheep were lost from a Gore farm.

Property DamageThe damage to a Gore nursery and market garden was estimated at $3000 ($45,000 2008 dollars).

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Gore M.H. Bridge reached a gauge height of 3.962 m on the 14th.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Gore M.H. Bridge had a peak discharge of 1,438 cumecs on the 14th, with a catchment area of 3465 km^2.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Gore reached a height of 4.57 m in April (normal height 0.80 m).

FloodingFlooding at Gorge Road

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Gorge Road reached a height of 3.62 m in April.

FloodingFlooding at Hokonui Hills

CommentThe heaviest flooding came from streams rising in the Hokonuis.

FloodingFlooding at Kennington

Peak River LevelThe Waihopai River at Kennington H-Way Bridge reached a gauge height of 2.591 m on the 14th.

Peak River FlowThe Waihopai River at Kennington H-Way Bridge had a peak discharge of 48.1 cumecs on the 14th, with a catchment area of 152 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Knapdale

Stock DamageIt was thought that 500 sheep were drowned on a Knapdale farm.

FloodingFlooding at Lumsden

Peak River LevelThe Oreti River at Lumsden C/B reached a height of 2.93 m in April (normal height 1.00 m).

FloodingFlooding at Makarewa Junction

Peak River LevelThe Makarewa River at the Freezing Works Bridge reached a gauge height of 5.608 m on the 14th.

Peak River FlowThe Makarewa River at the Freezing Works Bridge had a peak discharge of 407 cumecs on the 14th, with a catchment area of 1041 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Makarewa River

Peak River LevelThe Makarewa River had a peak flow of 407.8 cumecs on the 14th.

FloodingFlooding at Mataura

ImpactThe area of Mataura east of the river, upstream of the papermills, was flooded on the 14th and early 15th. The area west of the river was threatened early on the 15th when flood waters crossed the road near saw mill in the north end of town. Very extensive flooding was experienced on farmland.

Evacuees80 homes in Mataura were evacuated on the 14th.

ImpactIn the Selbourne Street area 11 homes were affected by flooding.

Property DamageConsiderable damage was done at the papermills and in Kana Street.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Mataura Town Bridge reached a gauge height of 8.077 m on the 14th.

Peak River FlowThe Mataura River at Mataura Town Bridge had a peak discharge of 1,557 cumecs on the 14th, with a catchment area of 4087 km^2.

Peak River FlowThe Mataura River at the Mataura Borough had a peak discharge of 1416 cumecs on the 12th.

FloodingFlooding at Mataura Island

Stock Damage200-250 sheep were lost from a Mataura Island farm, and 30-50 sheep from other properties in same district.

CommentMataura Island and Titiroa were possibly the hardest hit areas.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Mataura Island reached a height of 4.85 m in April (normal height 1.00 m).

FloodingFlooding at Mataura River

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at G. Simpson's reached a height of 3.40 m in April.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at S.L. Lobb's reached a height of 3.55 m in April.

FloodingFlooding at Otapiri Stream

Peak River LevelOtapiri Stream at McBrides reached a gauge height of 3.758 m on the 13th (normal height 0.70 m).

Peak River FlowOtapiri Stream at McBrides had a peak discharge of 80.2 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 109 km^2. This was the maximum flood recorded.

FloodingFlooding at Parawa

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Parawa reached a height of 3.87 m in April (normal height 1.20 m).

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Jobs Ford-Parawa reached a gauge height of 3.581 m on the 13th.

Peak River FlowThe Mataura River at Jobs Ford-Parawa had a peak discharge of 275 cumecs on the 13th, with a catchment area of 728 km^2.

FloodingFlooding at Pyramid Hill

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Pyramid reached a height of 3.77 m in April (normal height 1.00 m).

FloodingFlooding at Sunnyside station

Peak River LevelThe Waiau River at Sunnyside reached a height of 4.75 m in April (normal height 2.00 m).

FloodingFlooding at Titiroa

CommentMataura Island and Titiroa were possibly the hardest hit areas.

FloodingFlooding at Waikaia

Peak River LevelThe Waikaia River at Waikaia Town reached a height of 3.33 m in April (normal height 1.00 m).

Affected LifelineThe township of Waikaia was isolated and it was thought the bridge across the Waikaia River had been washed out.

FloodingFlooding at Waikiwi Stream

Peak River LevelWaikiwi Stream at Ferry Road reached a height of 3.12 m in April (normally tidal).

FloodingFlooding at Wallacetown

Peak River LevelThe Oreti River at the Riverton H-Way Bridge reached a gauge height of 3.841 m on the 16th.

Peak River FlowThe Oreti River at the Riverton H-Way Bridge had a peak discharge of 708 cumecs on the 16th, with a catchment area of 2202 km^2.

Peak River LevelThe Oreti River at Wallacetown reached a height of 3.64 m in April (normal height 1.40 m).

FloodingFlooding at Wyndham

Evacuees700 people were evacuated in Wyndham on the 14th.

ImpactIt was estimated that water had entered 90% of the houses and virtually all business premises.

Peak Water LevelThe water was up to 1.5 m in some homes.

Physical CharacteristicThe water was up to 4 ft (1.2 m) deep in the main street.

ImpactWyndham was a scene of desolation as the flood waters of the Mataura River and Mimihau Stream flowed through it. The township was officially a closed area.

CommentThe flood waters started to recede on the night of the 15th, after maintaining their depth from the 14th through to the afternoon of the 15th.

Affected LifelineFlood waters backed up the Mimihau River and spilled over the Mataura highway. On the main road to Invercargill on the outskirts of Wyndham, the roadway resembled a weir as water poured across it, scouring out a large area on one side. In places the roads were badly scoured or the sealed surface was broken up.

Peak River LevelThe Mataura River at Wyndham reached a height of 4.51 m in April (normal height 1.00 m).

Stewart Island

Multi HazardMulti Hazard at Putauhina Island

CasualtiesA 37-year-old man went missing on Hidden (Putauhina) Island, off Stewart Island, on the 9th while muttonbirding. It was believed he had been dashed against rocks in raging seas after falling over a 200-foot cliff.

ImpactSearch attempts were frustrated by bleak weather and strong winds until the 14th.

References

Author Unknown (2004). The Hauraki Gulf: State of the Environment Report 2004. Chapter 10: Coastal Hazards of the Gulf.
Boon, K. (1995). Events in New Zealand History: The Cyclone Giselle.
Brown, P.C.; Jones, S. Wind risk in the Bay of Plenty. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestery, FRI Bulletin 146.
Headline: Flood Damage To Roads Cost $22,037.
Coromandel and Mercury Bay Gazette, 31 July (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Civil Defence Declarations since 1 January 1963.
Declared Civil Defence Emergencies.
Environment Southland. Flood report July 2003.
Gee, M. (1992). Wahine Storm Damage In Wellington 10 April 1968. Weather and Climate (1992) 12: 89-96.
Grayland, E.C. (1978). More New Zealand Disasters.
Headline: Wind Hazard.
Hessell, J.W.D, Holloway, R.H.F, Knowles, D.G., Roberts, J.L. (1984). Scientific, Economic and Social Reviews of Natural Hazards in New Zealand. New Zealand National Commission For UNESCO, Wellington.
Headline: Cyclone Giselle.
http://library.christchurch.org.nz.
Insurance Councils, The Cost of Weather Loses, Claims History (Updated 2004).
Kerr, I.S. (1976). Tropical Storms and Hurricanes in the Southwest Pacific, November 1939 to April 1969. New Zealand Meteorological Service.
Major weather events in New Zealand, Floods and High Rainfall to 31st May 2006.
Major weather events in New Zealand, Floods and High Rainfall, Floods to 30 Sept 2005.
Major weather events in New Zealand, Floods and High Rainfall, Floods to 31st July 2006
Morris, B. (1987). New Zealand's Darkest Days, The country's worst disasters including: Mt Tarawera, The Wahine, Napier Earthquake, Mt Erebus, Tangiwai, Ballantyne's Fire.
New Zealand Evacuations from 1 January 1886 to 1 January 2000. (MCDEM NZ Flood Record, 1847 - 1990).
New Zealand Meteorological Service, Technicial Information Circular No.191, Extreme Wind Gusts.
New Zealand's Nature Heritage, Hamlyn House, Auckland, Volume 6, Great Storms.
New, D. Accounting for New Zealand Plantation's Risk to Wind Damage - facing the facts. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestery, FRI Bullrtin 146.
Headline: Business as usual in Kelso as flood debris is cleared.
Otago Daily Times, 16 April 1968.
Headline: City homes in danger after rain.
Otago Daily Times, 16 April 1968.
Headline: Evacuees may return today.
Otago Daily Times, 16 April 1968.
Headline: No hope held for survival.
Otago Daily Times, 16 April 1968.
Headline: Thousands of sheep believed drowned in Mataura floods.
Otago Daily Times, 16 April 1968.
Owen, R.E. (1969). Hydrology Annual No.16, 1968, Part 1. Government Printer Wellington, Water and Soil Division, New Zealand.
Owen, R.E. (1969). Hydrology Annual No.16, 1968. Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Council. Wellington, NZ: The Ministry of Works.
Saunders, W. (2000). Planning and Resources, Hazard and Emergency Management Section, Wairarapa Division, Wairarapa Storm Events 1880 - 1998, Technical Report No. 00/17.
Shearer, A.R. (1969). New Zealand Official Yearbook, 1969, 74th Issue. Department of Statistics, Wellington, Government Printer.
Headline: 87 m.p.h. Gales Hit Gisborne
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Apple Crop Damaged
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Lashed By Storm
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Three Inches Overnight
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Two Dead, Many Hurt As Wellington is Hit
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Unlikely To Be Felt Here
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Washed Across Room
Southland Times, 10 April 1968.
Studholme, W.P. Windthrow on the Canterbury Plains. Workshop on Wind damage in New Zealand Exotic Forests, Ministry of Forestery, FRI Bulletin 146.
Surface Water Hydrology of the Mataura River Catchment.
Headline: Severe Gales Hit Peninsula, Tropical Depression Leaves Trail of Flood and Damage.
Thames Star and Hauraki Plains News, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Storm Damage in Whitianga Harbour.
Thames Star and Hauraki Plains News, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: 70m.p.h. winds batter Western Bay.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Cyclone's speed described as "fantastic" by Met. Officer.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Milking delayed at Te Puke.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Several roofs damaged.
The Bay of Plenty Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Wide area blacked out as storm hits city.
The Bay Of Plenty Times, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Cars were abandoned by dozen.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Child killed in bed.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Gigantic clash of two great storms.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Parliament windows go.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Southerly leaves Kingston like battle aftermath.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Two hurt as sheds collapse.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Wahine founders off Seatoun, but only one passenger now believed drowned.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Widespread damage caused in Hutt Valley.
The Evening Post, April 10 1968.
Headline: Heartbreaking job for shattered Kingston residents.
The Evening Post, April 11 1968.
Headline: Storm could cost $100m.
The Marlborough Express, 17 February 2004.
Headline: Forest havoc in cyclone's wake.
The Nelson Evening Mail, 13 March 1975.
Headline: District Battens Down, Many Roads Cut.
The New Zealand Herald, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Flash Flood On West Coast.
The New Zealand Herald, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Houses Sandbagged as Floods Rise, Storm Sweeps South As Gales And Rain Hit North.
The New Zealand Herald, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: South Pacific Weather at 6 p.m. yesterday.
The New Zealand Herald, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Towns May Be Cut Off.
The New Zealand Herald, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Landslide Leaves Buildings Poised On Brink.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thrusday) 1968.
Headline: Cable Supply Cut From South.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: Debris-Strewn Captial Licks Her Wounds.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: Gigantic Clash Caused Record Blast.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: South Pacific Weather at 6 p.m. yesterday.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: Trail Of Damage Left By Storm Ever To Hit N.Z.
The New Zealand Herald, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: Cyclone Wounds Deeply, Scars From One End of Country To Other.
The New Zealand Herald, 13 April (Saturday) 1968.
Headline: Forecasters Claim Storm Was the Worst Recorded in New Zealand.
The New Zealand Herald, 13 April (Saturday) 1968.
Headline: South Pacific Weather at 6 p.m. yesterday.
The New Zealand Herald, 13 April (Saturday) 1968.
Headline: South Pacific Weather at 6 p.m. yesterday.
The New Zealand Herald, 9 April (Tuesday) 1968.
Headline: Heathcote flood damage warning.
The Press, 29 December 1997.
Headline: Bad weather costs insurers $25m yearly.
The Press, 8 January 2003.
Headline: Heavy rain, high wind end long summer.
The Wanganui Chronicle, 10 April 1968.
Headline: Aircraft wrecked, hanger shattered.
The Wanganui Chronicle, 11 April 1968.
Headline: City homes lose roofs in fury of hurricane.
The Wanganui Chronicle, 11 April 1968.
Headline: Gale blazes path of destruction.
The Wanganui Chronicle, 11 April 1968.
Headline: … gorge highway - The flood in the Ohinemuri River through Karagahake Gorge.
Waikato Times, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: The storm a tropical cyclone…
Waikato Times, 10 April (Wednesday) 1968.
Headline: Repairs satart as storm moves south.
Waikato Times, 11 April (Thursday) 1968.
Headline: Many Bridges Out …
Waikato Times, 15 April (Monday) 1968.
Headline: Gales, heavy rain near North Island.
Waikato Times, 9 April (Tuesday) 1968.